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( The founder of Yogacara-vidzhnyanavady (the doctrine of consciousness as the only reality) and one of the main theorists of Mahayana Buddhism, who lived in 4)

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Biography Asanga
According to the Chinese and Tibetan sources, Asanga was born in the Brahmin clan Kaushik, in Purushapure (Peshawar in Pakistan) and was the eldest of three brothers, the youngest was the same Vasubandhu. Initially, Asanga took monastic dedication to the traditional school of Buddhism mahischasaka, but later under unknown circumstances, was converted to Mahayana Buddhism. He managed to draw in the Mahayana and Vasubandhu, adheres to traditional Buddhist teachings. It happened in their home Purushapure or in the capital of Mithila (Bihar) - Ayodhya. The brothers collaborated in the court in Ayodhya, and there is reason to believe that Asanga died in her suburb of the seventy-fifth year of life. Only two of the works attributed to Asanga not in doubt in terms of authorship
. The first of them - Abhidharma-samuchchaya (distillation of Abhidharma), . presents a concise set of basic concepts of traditional Buddhist scholasticism, . which added the definition of new categories, . predominantly vidzhnyanavadinskih: 'accumulated consciousness' (scarlet-vidzhnyana), . 'per se' (tathata), . three levels of reality,

The main work of Asanga - Mahayana-sangraha (Amount teachings of the great chariot), the ten chapters is divided into three 'sections': chapters 1-2 - the objects of study, chapter 3.8 - self study and practice, leading to a 'state of the Buddha' ch. 9-10 - results of the study and practice. Chapter 1 examines in detail the main categories of Buddhist idealism alayavidzhnyana, which is known from earlier vidzhnyanavadinskih works, such as Samnidhinirmochane (Explanation of the depth of truth). This 'accumulated consciousness' stores 'footprint' (Vaasa) The impact of past experience of the individual in the form of 'seed' (Bija), who will grow in the future experience. 'Accumulated consciousness' is a condition for the functioning of 'active mind', . which, . in turn, . leaves 'footprint', . returning 'accumulated consciousness' and there 'sprouting', . and, . thus, . individual is constantly changing, . dynamic configuration of the two 'consciousnesses',
. In addition to the six kinds of consciousness is another self -, . characterized as a 'dirty mentality' (klishta-manas), . by aberrations which alayavidzhnyana conceived as a real ego and even 'substantial I', . like brahmanistskogo Atman,
. By Asanga, . alayavidzhnyana is as dynamic and 'bessubstantsialnym' phenomenon, . as any stream of consciousness, . with the difference, . that he attributed to accumulating function and it is incomprehensible for 'ordinary people' (in fact it was an attempt to introduce Buddhism to the quasi-Atman, . designed to explain the law of karma, . and the unity of individual consciousness),
. Chapter 2 develops the concept of three levels of reality: 1) 'imaginary nature' (parikalpita-svabhava), 2) 'sensitive nature' (paratantra-svabhava) and 3) 'perfect nature' (parinishpanna-svabhava). This concept (later used and greatly modified in Advaita Vedanta) was also not opening Asanga. In Sagathake, the poetic annex to the famous Lankavatara Sutra, three levels of reality can be distinguished as pseudo-objects, pseudo-actors and absolute consciousness. But the feature of the interpretation Asanga was, . that as a base, he saw not the first, . the second level of reality - the images of objects of knowledge (dependent on the 'fingerprint' of previous experience, . stored in the 'accumulated consciousness'), . whereas the first level corresponds to a false idea of the actual objects, . imposed on their 'image', . and the third - the absence of this 'overlay',
. Chapter 3 deals with the strategies 'implementation' of the Buddhist doctrine of idealism, according to which objects of the external world as there are none and there are only a representation of consciousness. Subject Chapter 3 - six degrees of perfection following the path of the Bodhisattva (paramita) - Generosity (given), morality (sila), patience (kshanti), courage, diligence (VIRIAT), practice of meditation (dhyana) and wisdom (Prajna). Chapters 4.8 addresses the ten stages of bodhisattva moral behavior - individually, meditative concentration (strictly Buddhist yoga) and 'nerazlichitelnoe knowledge' (nirvikalpadzhnyana). Subject Chapter 9 - Transformation of the basis of existence (ashrayaparavritti) and the ultimate nirvana, 'nirvana without support' (apratishthita-Nirvana). Chapter 10 deals with three of the body of the Buddha on the teachings of Mahayana: 'the body of Dharma' (dharma-kaya) 'body of bliss' (sambhoga-kai), and 'produced by the body' (Nirmala-kai). This concept has also been scheduled to Lankavatara Sutra. Three bodies of the Buddha are correlated with three levels of reality: the dharma-kaya - the 'perfect nature' and is interpreted as the Absolute, . 'beginning of the Buddha' in all living beings; sambhoga-kai - a 'sensitive nature', . and was consistent with the innumerable Buddhas, . that inhabit the elevated areas; Nirmala-kai - with the 'imaginary nature', . a Buddha, . operating in the earthly world and endowed with the mortal body, . one of which was the historical Buddha of the Shakya tribe,

Place Asanga in the history of Buddhism is determined by its role as a de facto founder of one of his most influential and 'refined' systems. Asanga attributed more than a dozen works, . one of which - Yogacharabhumishastra (Levels yogic practices) - is significant for all 'practical philosophy' Mahayana through expanded interpretation of the ideal of the Bodhisattva, . Other - Mahayanasutralankara (Decoration sutras big chariot) - for Mahayana 'Buddhism', . teachings of the Buddha and the enlightenment (bodhi),
. Mahayanasangraha been translated into 6. in Chinese Paramarthoy and became the fundamental text for based Kui-chi school Fasyan-tsung (7-9 cc.). Among the followers of Asanga in China can be called a well-known historian and philosopher Hsuan-tsang (7.). Effect of Asanga was much as in Tibet (where he is portrayed as the head of all exegetes) and Japan (school Dharma character school-shu). In all these regions Asanga considered bodhisattva, is associated with the cult of the Buddha of the future world order - Maitreya.

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Asanga, photo, biography
Asanga, photo, biography Asanga  The founder of Yogacara-vidzhnyanavady (the doctrine of consciousness as the only reality) and one of the main theorists of Mahayana Buddhism, who lived in 4, photo, biography
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