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Rachinsky Sergey

( Botanist and the well-known figure on national education)

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Biography Rachinsky Sergey
Born in 1836, studied at Moscow University and received a Master of botany for his thesis "On the motion of higher plants" (Moscow, 1859). Koh Racha-time professorship at Moscow University is more independent work in his specialty ( "Some chemical transformations of plant tissues", . M., . 1866) and excellent scientific and popular essays, . printed in the Russian Messenger: "Flowers and insects and other,
. In 1867, Mr.. Rachinsky, leaving a professorship, he settled in the village, and in 1875. wholeheartedly devoted himself to the people's school in the village of Tatev, Belsky district of Smolensk province. Moved from the manor house in the school, he began to live a life with her students. In children, Rachinsky, from the very beginning of its activities, surrounded by young men, peasants, whom he was preparing a teacher for the surrounding villages and for which stores the value leader and mentor. For students from the neighboring villages were arranged at the school hostel. At common prayer, rather long, the students sang religious songs, on Saturday he had read the gospel Rachinskii in Church Slavonic and in Russian, with brief explanations. School Rachinsky, . in the modest limits, . that it limited its activities, . achieved excellent results, in only very exceptional circumstances, . in which they achieved, . they can, . sure, . serve as a criterion of the principles, . who holds Rachinskii in their pedagogical and literary writings, . Desiring to create a consonant with the general type of public school,
. In his "Notes on Rural Schools" (St. Petersburg, . 1883), . published "by order of the Procurator of the Holy Synod," and appeared on the eve of the publication of the rules of the church schools, . Rachinsky favored the transfer of all cases of primary education in the conduct of the clergy undivided, . while at the same time did not recognize the historical merits of the clergy in public education, . in his later articles does not hide very cold attitude of contemporary rural clergy at public school,
. Rachinsky dwelt more especially on the fact, . that our rural school, . Unlike western, . occurs "when a deep indifference of the educated classes" (which is completely untrue), . arranged by the people "at a very low participation of the clergy", . and yet the direction it purely ecclesiastical,
. People looking for "not everyday, but the sublime teachings" and he especially wants students to know the church-Slavic language, knew how to read the prayer book, Psalms and other liturgical books and became acquainted with the church singing. In this national-religious character of the elementary school Rachinsky sees its strength, . and accordingly limits the rate of literacy, . mainly on the church books, . Yes arithmetic, . Endorsing and statutory letter printed church-Slavic letters,
. With a longer time to work, at a proper school attendance and with two teachers, Racha enters into the program are the geometry, physics, geography and history in part. Messages passing some knowledge about the nature and the fatherland, and the potential for an ordinary primary school, Rachinsky not recognize. Denies the Rachinsky and "German" teaching methods. At the base of teaching Russian language, he puts Church Slavic, . with all its grammatical forms, . reading in school in this language, . parallel with the Russian translation, . Gospel, . Psalter and other liturgical books, with such a course, knowledge of Russian language, . according Rachinsky, . will follow is itself,
. In grammar rests Rachinsky, however, Grech, ie "German" method, which was received by us 70 years ago and therefore is considered to be Russian. To read in people's school, . whose, . however, . Rachinsky system there is hardly a lot of leisure, . Rachinsky appoints Homer, . Shakespeare, . Pushkin, . Zhukovsky, . family chronicle Aksakov, . some works Lazhechnikov, . Zagoskina, . Dahl, . A,
. Tolstoy, but firmly exclude Gogol and other writers of the forties. Portraying in the darkest colors, spiritual atmosphere, . that 30 years breathed our village school ", . led secular schoolteachers, . This "new class of people, . despise the people and hated by the people ", . Rachinsky finds, . that "the School of piety and good morals" Our village school all this time was, . because "the life of the educated classes taught immorality and godlessness", . and the same reason, ascribes the decline of creativity in all spheres of the spiritual life of the people,
. But at least it paints a gloomy colors and modern rural clergy, . the hands of which he proposes to give rural schools, it is in his portrayal of "estate intimidated, . but greedy and envious, . humiliated, . but pretentious, . lazy and indifferent to his higher calling, . but due to the fact and does not quite faultless in the way of life ",
. This lamentable state of the clergy, to convince Rachinsky, can not be changed by the reforms, activities, over-reaching: for this "need a personal achievement, infinitely heavy, ridiculously modest - and therefore great. It is necessary that people with higher education, with a secured income, not belonging to the caste of the spiritual, took over, one of love for God and neighbor, a heavy cross of the priesthood ". Another way to update the clergy Rachinsky sees in bringing him fresh strength of the peasants. Nevertheless Rachinsky argues that the school, enrolling in the conduct of the clergy, will elevate the last: the people with him do not need freedom of the high religious and educational start to lead the clergy to understand his calling. And for the people, . however, . Rachinsky speaks disapprovingly, . finding, . that "currently, . in a moment of awakening in our people conscious of Christianity, . bacchanalia too often drowned in it every movement of the spirit ", . therefore is an urgent need for "speedy and decisive turn",
. Generally it is difficult to tell who, according to Rachinsky, kept the source of life. People looking for salvation from the intelligentsia, which is also bad and can be saved only by the people. Collection of articles Rachinsky released under the title: "Rural School" (Moscow, 1891 and 1898, with an introductory article about the school in the village of Tatev follower Rachinsky, Gorbova). Rachinsky still belongs to the brochure "The folk art and rural schools" (Moscow, 1882). Wed. M. SH. "The new plan is the device public school" ( "Vestnik Evropy, 1883," 8); Missions, SA. Rachinsky (Orenburg, 1891). Died in 1902. His recent works: "Letters to the spiritual to young people about abstinence" (Moscow, 1899), "Rural School. Collected articles "(published. 5, St. Petersburg., 1902), "Geometric fun" (ib., 1901); "1001 challenge to the mental health bill. Handbook for teachers in rural schools "(ib., 1899). See. S. Tanaevsky "In memory. A. R. "(Kazan, 1904); his" On. A. R. as a fighter for people's sobriety at the church and school grounds "(Vyatka, 1899); H. Hump "SA. Rachinsky (St. Petersburg, 1903). Correspondence P. with a variety of familiar and unfamiliar, individuals and a variety of questions (in 60 bound volumes, with the designation period, after which it can do in common use) is stored in the Imperial Public Library. Some of the letters have not yet dismantled, all, according to H. Gorbova, they get more than 150 volumes.

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Rachinsky Sergey, photo, biography
Rachinsky Sergey, photo, biography Rachinsky Sergey  Botanist and the well-known figure on national education, photo, biography
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