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Reitern Michael Hristoforovich

( Statesman)

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Biography Reitern Michael Hristoforovich
1820 - 1890
. education in the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum, began service in the Ministry of Finance, . continued it in the Ministry of Justice, . and in 1854 moved to the Naval Ministry, . where he joined the circle of, . grouped around the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich (see) and worked on the device emeritalnoy fund Navy Department,
. In 1858, P. complained to the State Secretary and was appointed manager of general affairs committee railways in 1860 was appointed head of the financial affairs committee and became a member of editorial committees for the liberation of the peasants. January 23, 1862 he was entrusted with the management of the Ministry of Finance. Russian financial situation was at that time very unfavorable. Every year was a deficit, debt, as interest and interest-free, has steadily increased, covering the lack of funds for current expenses. The increase in sight and in the future, set at the turn of reform demanded money. Orderings cost P. reached in making the financial management of the same began to transparency, legality, possibly greater control of administrative action, which are generally conducted era of reform. In the first year of his administration, he began to publicize the public murals, which until then were considered almost a state secret. In the same year were worked out new rules for the preparation, approval and financial performance of ministries, at the same time was introduced so-called unity of the fund (see. XI, 562). With great energy F. sought to reduce the surplus appropriation, decreased with him from 35 to 15 and even up to 9 million rubles. In 1872 he moved into the painting with a small surplus of income over expenditure, almost without the benefit of state loan for budgetary purposes. If the public debt at P. increased more than with anyone any of its predecessors, and the government first approached the conclusion of internal loans (see. Credit, XVI, 621), it was caused mainly traffic redemption operations and growth of the productive expenditure. The best way to increase government revenue R. seen in the development of productive forces. Main obstacles to this were two: the vast distances and lack of private credit. At P. built railway network in 20 000. which gave a big boost of wheat leave and expanding the sale of manufactured products. R. not a supporter of treasury management; he opposed the construction of new roads by means of the treasury, and state-owned roads already built, when it began to pass into private hands (roads Odessa, Kyiv-Brest, Moscow-Kursk). Construction of railways through the Treasury at that time prevented the provision of state credit: the 60-ies-WIDE 5% of our loans dropped to 60, . 6%-WIDE - up to 80 per 100, even winning a loan in 1864 not all was covered with a subscription, . so that part of it had to take state bank,
. On the other hand, and private companies for a long time failed to realize capital placement shares. In this situation P. in 1865 decided to adopt the draft P. G. von Derviz and AI. Kolemina offering to build roads on the government guaranteed bonds issued earlier action and placed mainly in Germany (see. Railways, XI, 779). Continuous bond issues were, however, disadvantages in financial terms, to the detriment of our credit. Therefore, since 1870 R. not allowing the placement of bonds of individual companies abroad, and bought them from companies issuing consolidated bonds in exchange for more favorable rate (cm. XI, 780 - 781). Before P. Russia knew the private loans only as lenders and discounters. In 1864 the first organized by the St. Petersburg private commercial bank asked the treasury millions of interest-free loan to such an extent that it seemed risky and Russia is unusual. Because of systematic support, which provided P. to the private loan, . in a short time created a system of private commercial banks, . any private land banks, . new life into the city were public banks (the normal statute of 1862), . began to emerge ssudosberegatelnye Association (rules 1869),
. Railway concession and banking company promotion generated a lot of abuse and the stock market game, which entailed a series of crises. Rules 30 March 1874 on railway concessions were intended to eliminate the monopoly of a few capitalists, and make public a party in the construction of railways, the normal rules in 1872 were directed to address abuses in the establishment of new joint-stock commercial banks and land,
. Neither they nor others have not reached the goal. In drafting in 1868 a new customs tariff, P. the first time resorted to publicity and to survey manufacturers. A major importance was the destruction of oil repurchase in the Caucasus (1872), . who served as an insurmountable obstacle to the development of our oil industry, . and the repeal in 1863 of almost all export duties, the Treasury lost by this over 1 200 000 rubles, . but won our Foreign trade,
. In 1874, for preparation in Russia, the rails were installed premium of 20 to 35 kopecks per pood, . for 12 years, . but the government orders were distributed plants (Putilov, . Bryansk, . Byrd and others), . most of which were located outside the Russian deposits of iron ore and the Russian mineral fuels, . resulting in production of rails though has made significant development, . but steel with a 2 / 3 is generated from foreign iron, . Foreign same combustible materials, . and sacrifice, . incurred by the State Treasury, . not led to increased development of local groundwater resources,
. - Among the least successful activities P. owned operations to consolidate currencies. In the first year of his administration by the Ministry of Finance, P. tried to establish convertibility of banknotes in hard cash, a draft of which he inherited from his predecessor, but the attempt resulted only in significant losses to the Treasury (see. Credit notes, XVI, 613). Later P. the same kinds of recourse to the support of bill of exchange, but it only fed the stock game. Placing the question to abolish the poll tax, the distribution of relief among all of its estates, and gave way to resolve this issue for discussion meetings Zemsky (1871), P. Yet twice increased the head tax from the rural townsfolk: in 1862 to 25% in 1867 to 50 cents. Head tax was replaced with the townspeople in 1863 in property taxes in urban areas. In the same year was issued a new position on fees for the right to trade and crafts, . substantially surrounding it with petty trade, in 1868 the situation is extended to the Kingdom of Poland, . in 1870 and 1873 respectively in general enhanced the incidence of trade and crafts,
. At P. realized the destruction of leases and excise system was introduced, that was a foregone conclusion even with his predecessor. Originally established in the excise tax a penny to 4 degrees was low, drunkenness increased a lot, so already in 1864, excise duty on alcohol was increased to 5 cents, bezaktsizny smoko reduced, and excise taxes from beer easier. In 1870, the excise tax on alcohol increased by 1 penny at the new limit smoke, and in 1873 - even at 1 penny in Russia and 1 1 / 2 a penny in the Kingdom of Poland; patent fee, increased in 1871, two years later was doubled. The tax on tobacco was significantly increased by the new charter of tobacco in 1872. Sugar excise tax was reformed in 1863 and then increased in 1867 to 50 kopecks per pood, and in 1870 brought to 70 cents. In 1872, the excise tax was imposed on kerosene, but on the basis of so irrational that after 5 years it was canceled. In 1862 Salt Regalia replaced by excise duty, from which state revenue increased, but the salt is generally rise in price. In 1864, changed the stamp duty, and in 1874 issued a new stamp statute, surrounded by many of the documents had not previously paid. By decree of December 10, 1874 State Zemsky collection merged with the general revenues of the Treasury. Tax for production in the ranks replaced in 1873 with the net increase in the content of officials. When in 1876 the political confusion took a threatening nature, P. presented the emperor detailed note in which he argued that Russia of the war immediately and permanently lose all made it through 20 years of reforms, results. When the war with Turkey was resolved, he asked for his resignation from the management of the Ministry of Finance and remained at his post only in the sense of civic duty. On military spending from 1876 to 1878 it took more than 888 million rubles. This amount could be covered only loans and issuing credit notes. The latter was released on 300 million rubles, while Reutern, introducing the finance committee of the inevitability of issuing credit cards, he stressed the harmful effects of its. Projects new taxes P. declined, limiting prescription to levy customs duties in gold, that at the then rate of increase was equivalent to 25 - 30%. A large and unexpected support was provided by our finance favorably formed in 1877, trade balance. Thanks to the huge holiday bread, due to crop failure in Western Europe, it became possible to buy fixed-term promissory notes for 161 200 000 rubles from this source was acquired coin for the active army. Once entered into a definitive peace in Berlin, R., in July 1878, was, according to his request, the dismissal from office of the Minister of Finance. Criticism of the financial measures in newspapers and magazines never caused by P. recourse to the punitive or preventive power management. In 1881, P. was appointed Chairman of the Main Committee on the Rural and the Committee of Ministers. The first post he held until the abolition of the Committee (May 1882), second - before the end of 1886. In 1890, P. elevated to the Count's dignity. A. I.

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