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Reshetnikov Fyodor Mikhailovich

( Famous writer.)

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Biography Reshetnikov Fyodor Mikhailovich
photo Reshetnikov Fyodor Mikhailovich
In the history of modern Russian literature Reshetnikov still occupies a special position, one of the most striking manifestations of which can serve as a review of Turgenev, in his memoirs about Belinsky. Casting a glance at the works that appeared after the death of criticism, Turgenev, said: "It would be glad Belinsky poetic gift LN. Tolstoy, Ostrovsky's strength, Pisemsky humor, satire Saltykov, sober truth Reshetnikov ". The reason for this was the revocation, however, only one small piece Reshetnikov - ethnographic essay Podlipovtsy ". Almost exclusively on "Podlipovtsah" written and other critics Reshetnikov, and the remaining works Reshetnikova recognized uninteresting, hardly belonging to literature, sometimes "semi-literate" (the word apologist Reshetnikov - MA. Protopopov). Reshetnikov wrote sometimes do so as a kind of mixture of simple speech with speech of the educated classes, which appears in the letters of literate commoners. Literary treatment of his works can not withstand the most elementary requirements, do not deny the most friendly critics Reshetnikov, in general, making it important. Thus E.I. Utin, who wrote a very sympathetic article about Reshetnikov, said his "nevyrabotannom syllable" about his "simplicity, verging on dry," about his "astonishing inability to dispose of his material". P.N. Tkachev, . also wrote a sympathetic article about Reshetnikov, . notes "the paucity of imagination" author "Podlipovtsev", . noticing quite rightly: "novelists must have some ability to generalize, . some degree of creative imagination, . some power of imagination - but Reshetnikova not even in the bud all of these qualities ",
. P.D. Boborykin, in a later article about Reshetnikov, also notes that "the lack of literary skills in Reshetnikova first strikes, then even amused". How big is new and must be "true" Podlipovtsev ", . to make people forget all the requirements for her, . applicable to the work of art? Indeed, . however, . in Podlipovtsah "there is nothing typical; one gust of penitence, . which is in the best part of Russian society called "Podlipovtsy", . was only a manifestation of the extraordinary Russian conscience of Russian "repentant nobleman", . rather than the direct output of the material, . This product,
. The author himself with complete integrity, titled his work like this: "Podlipovtsy. Ethnographic essay. But no he did not believe it, in fact ethnographic sketch of life savages non-Russian origin, saw the image of the Russian peasant life. On the first pages of the essay Reshetnikov says quite definitely that podlipovtsy, the villagers Podlipnoy - "Native", ie. pagan aliens, that they pray "to their permyakskim gods" that they "speak permyakski, poorly understood by our words" - and no one was paid the slightest attention. The sources of this misunderstanding lies in the fact that reshetnikovskie permyaks say in Russian, only with Perm regional peculiarities. Clearly, . that if in some corner of Russia, . even under the most extreme and adverse conditions, . Russian peasant could reach such a life, . is depicted in "Podlipovtsah", . then how some sensitive conscience could not be shaken by this down to the depths of,
. Podlipovtsy change once a year, a shirt, this bread is eaten with a few months of the year, the rest of the chaff to eat the bark, from which in the beginning of the essay is dying out almost all Podlipnaya. Podlipovtsy not know how to lay down a simple stove podlipovtsu too lazy to chop firewood and the guys freeze from the cold. Real church service podlipovtsy never seen. Marriage sanctified they do not exist. The father explains to his son, that "a woman to live Basko, and he finds a girl, with which it lives, until by chance a visitor priest, threatening to become, not forced him to marry. It is not evil Matra most in his life loved a cow. A cow for her was more than the children: the children she was not given, and cow's milk supplied the whole family ". Kind, by author's intentions, the guy Sysoika little brother and sister "sadil to the bare floor, purposely did not give there, thinking that they would die," wanted "to strike dead with something, but he was sorry, he was afraid". Podlipovtsy not know what the king what passport. Wisest and best of podlipovtsev - Peel can count only up to five, he was an inveterate thief and a systematic and lives with his daughter Aproskoy, which is shared with Sysoika. Still Reshetnikov shows very clearly that the soul podlipovtsa not alien to human feeling. Saw does not understand why we can not steal from shopkeepers and even fellow villagers, but the same fellow villagers, he provides many services, and to Sysoika feels fatherly tenderness and care for him with a touching tenderness. There is a story and many other manifestations of the fact that the living spring of human feelings in my heart beats animal-like heroes of the story. That is what aggravated impression: think, . that anyone from enjoying the fruits of life and culture to blame for the horrendous "degenerate" people Podlipnoy, . that when more sympathetic attitude towards them, . can not be reached to such a loss to the image and likeness of the human,
. In some of these feelings, excited "Podlipovtsami", is their undoubted historic significance. Even acknowledging the impression made by an essay Reshetnikov, misunderstanding, we can not agree with the fact that in the history of the image of national life "Podlipovtsy" a turning point. After them, if not "sober", then at least a sobering truth lord condolence, softening and elevated the image of a national life disappears forever. In subsequent works Reshetnikov - "Where is the best?", . "Glumov", . "His bread and others - also portrayed the popular hill, . but the reader is no longer considered himself responsible for this grief, . because it largely themselves heroes agonizingly-long, . monotonous "novels" Reshetnikov were to blame for their opinions,
. They brutally drink at every opportunity are ready to steal everything that is bad, and, with few exceptions, less likable than Saw and Sysoika. Life, which portrayed Reshetnikov - Living Ural workers - on their exclusivity, and could not help generalize the findings and initiate a lively interest. The most unfortunate of the great works of Reshetnikov - "my bread". The author is given here to portray the struggle against prejudice, which leads young girl from the bureaucratic (or "aristocratic", on the naive terminology Reshetnikova) circle, might want to live their own labor. The outcome of their aspirations for emancipation heroine (perhaps a portrait of a person close to Reshetnikov) finds that for the same civil servants, the notion that it seems narrow and antiquated sewing fancy dresses. In purely literary terms Reshetnikov more successful in short stories such as "Auntie Oporiha". Here, at least, there are no tedious repetition, which are characteristic of the protocol works Reshetnikov, completely devoid of the ability to allocate and differentiate between the important and striking from the secondary and indifferent. Interest are the autobiographical sketches "between people". In connection with the few surviving biographical data they give a clue as to why everything he wrote Reshetnikov, so bleak and hopeless. Reshetnikov was born Sept. 5, 1841 in Yekaterinburg. His father was the first deacon, then joined the postmen. Drunkard, he brought his wife, the daughter of a deacon, to the extent that it is 9-month Reshetnikov decided to leave him in Perm, where he lived the brother of her husband. She came to Perm during the terrible fire, which at its very nervous nature made such an impression that she died. The boy remained in the care of his uncle and aunt. They were not evil people on the merits, but also experiencing a terrible hardship on the beggarly salary of the post office, took out all the accumulated discontent at the adoptee, which had also seen fit to "teach" for his own good. Naturally cheerful, . lively and frisky boy irritated them with his cheerfulness, he began to beat continuously, . brutally, . to the blood and brought it to such bitterness, . that he had no difficulty bury a dead cat in the trough, . smeared in the dirt clean underwear, . pull out of a samovar crane and throw it over the fence, etc.,
. He was a punishment for the entire court, all his mercilessly beaten, but he continued to do all sorts of trouble. Lasky, he had never dated anyone knew when he was the first and last time in his life, at 9 years old, saw his father, all the interview was limited by the fact that both awkward silence, as a parting father asked his aunt: "Oh help you have it. .. that there is urine Deri ". Ten years he was sent to the district school, and the boy began to beat at home and at school. In school flogged more, he decided to run. After various misadventures of his capture and detach so that he spent two months in hospital. Nevertheless, he soon escaped again, wandered to the poor, suffered terrible hardship, was caught and again savagely punished. Hunt had gone to escape. By flogging he became indifferent, . besides, he thought of a way to evade it bribes: the watchman sekutoru gave a few pennies of those, . that earned in the post-office writing letters for illiterate, . and dragged the teachers from the newspaper or mail sent by his uncle's gift of writing,
. Tuscany newspapers had fatal consequences for Reshetnikov. After reading the newspapers Reshetnikov rarely sent them back to destination subscribers and usually threw them somewhere. These tricks got away with it until the case was limited to newspapers. But the newspapers were among the packages, which also threw Reshetnikov. Once between not delivered on the packet's destination turned out to be important official papers. Went up a commotion, the investigation began, got to the tricks Reshetnikov. Above him was assigned to the trial, which lasted two years and has tormented his family, and most of all his own. Participation of teachers has been overshadowed by the court and all the investigation is reduced to that Reshetnikov dissected packages that have got a good white paper, and come across some pictures. As young boy, the perpetrator, the punishment was limited by the fact that he was sent to repentance Solikamsky Monastery. Three-month stay at the monastery had unfortunate consequences for Reshetnikov. "In one week - Reshetnikov, wrote in his memoirs - I know the wickedness of the monks, as they drink wine, swear, eat beef, they go at night, break the gate". Reshetnikov spent time here, wonderful and fun, but it was here that he acquired the pernicious habit of guilt. On the basis of hereditary alcoholism, she quickly undermined his life. Hilarious pastime Solikamsk monks did not prevent Reshetnikov indulge in a very deep enthusiasm for asceticism and mysticism, he had long wanted to devote himself to a truly pious life. Returning to Perm, Reshetnikov again entered the district school and graduated from the course very well in 1859, then settled in Yekaterinburg, where his uncle got the position of Assistant Postmaster. He went first to the district court clerk with a salary of 3 rubles, then was an assistant-manager. At this time, literary leanings Reshetnikova affected already very clearly: he wrote poems, dramas, essays. Native belonged to his writing is very unsympathetic, regarded this as a "black nemochyu" and partly afraid that he would not show up started in the newspapers and did not cause them trouble at work. Reshetnikov, however, did not let up, and especially many began writing when in 1860. entered the service in the Perm. Upon learning that all my free time Reshetnikov gives "black nemochi, uncle wrote to him:" I do not get along and even did not want to make you a poet or some fool, and always tried to make you an intelligent and educated man ". In Perm Reshetnikov, but the desire of a large space for intellectual life, attracted by the love that he suppressed in himself under the influence of the ascetic mood. From the first mounting up favorable relations did not work, and the overall gloomy mood was a new food. In Perm Reshetnikov took place clerical minister of the Exchequer. Receiving a salary 5 rubles a month, he lived from hand to mouth, spending 1 1 / 2 rubles to the flat, 90 cents for beef, 60 cents for corn and 60 cents for milk. In 1862, Mr.. he managed to put the ethnographic essay in Perm province news ", but it only caused him a lot of trouble at work, he began to fear as a troubled and unpleasant man who is about to expose his fellow. In Perm at this time came from the Ministry of the auditor, who has worked Reshetnikov papers and correspondence which has very much liked. Literary hobbies Reshetnikov, his dramas and poems, the auditor did not approve, but promised to find him a place in St. Petersburg and its promise fulfilled. In August 1863. Reshetnikov was already in St. Petersburg. First, he is very much in poverty. Place in the Ministry of Finance gave only 9 rubles a month, again had to live from hand to mouth, in a hovel next to the tavern. To correct some of your funds, Reshetnikov placed small sketches in Northern Bee, "but they paid him a very messy. One of his colleagues suggested the idea to demolish the newly written "Podlipovtsev" in the "Contemporary". In a letter to Nekrasov said Reshetnikov, and it's extremely valuable for characterizing the overall color of creativity Reshetnikov, its motives and sources: "I planned to write a barge haulers life to in any way to help these poor toilers. In my opinion, to write all this way - is to speak against his conscience, write a lie. Our literature must speak the truth ... You would not believe, I even cried when I outlines the way in front of saws during his suffering ". Secret of success "Podlipovtsev" consists in the fact that the tears, though hidden behind the dry style of the protocol of the author, to tell the reader. Immediately printed (in? 3 and 4 "Contemporary" for 1864), "Podlipovtsy" immediately created Reshetnikov largest known. He left the service and devoted himself entirely literature. But little personal happiness gave Reshetnikov unexpected success. He suffered from the consciousness of their worthless education, from the fact that he was not interested in metropolitan writers pounced on him as a novelty. His reputation was back, although he published very readily in the best journals. By the moral and material suffering joined. Although he was earning a lot, but he was not alone: soon after his arrival in Petersburg, he married a compatriot, who had come to the capital to earn their bread. Come on children, earnings had been wrong, had to live in poverty. All this made Reshetnikova extremely grim, grim and grave, he eschewed all drowned, and their mood in wine. He again became a pulmonary edema, and he died on March 9, 1871, before the age of 30 years. Collected Works Reshetnikova published in 1869. (St. Petersburg), in 2 volumes, then K.T. Soldatenkova in 1874,. (M., 2 volumes), with an introduction by Gleb Uspensky, and in 1890, and 95 years - F.F. Pavlenkov Article M. Protopopov. Wed. Fatherland Notes, 1871,? 4 (G. Assumption); п-.п°. Skabichevsky "Works"; NV. Shelgunov (Delo, 1871, No. 5); Eug. Utin (in the Journal of Europe ", 1869, No. 12); P.D. Boborykin (in the "Critical Review", 1880,? 10); P.N. Tkachev (in the "case", 1868, "11 and 12);" Dawn "(1869,? 9); mK. Smt (in the "Compendium of the Week", 1872) and A. (Avseenko) in the Russian Messenger "(1875,? 4)," The Shining "(1872,? 19); Golovin" Russian novel "; GS. Tenth "to biography F.M. Reshetnikov (Kazan, 1897, reprint of the "Volga Messenger). S. Vengerov.

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Reshetnikov Fyodor Mikhailovich, photo, biography
Reshetnikov Fyodor Mikhailovich, photo, biography Reshetnikov Fyodor Mikhailovich  Famous writer., photo, biography
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