Kurt Aland (Aland Kurt)( German evangelical theologian, exegete, an expert on church history and textual criticism of the New Testament.)
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Biography Kurt Aland (Aland Kurt)
Born in Berlin on March 28, 1915 in a pious family of workers. Once, in the Berlin University. Von Humboldt (1933), studied theology, philology, archeology and history. Final examination in theology passed in 1938 not in the university, . in so-called Confessing Church (branch of the Evangelical Church in Germany, . resisting the Nazi regime), . to which he had joined (in 1935 participated in the edition of the journal Confessing Church 'Young Church'),
. In 1937 became a member of Professor Hans Litsmanna (1875-1942), a specialist in church history, patristic, and the New Testament. In 1939 received a Licentiate of Theology, defending his work on the FYa.Shpeneru. In 1939 he was called up for military service, was discharged in 1941 after being seriously wounded in France. In the same year he became chief editor of 'Theological literary newspaper' ( 'Theologische Literaturzeitung'), . unpublished reviews of books and articles on theology, he defended gabilitatsionnuyu work (which gives the right to hold professorships) and became assistant Litsmanna,
. After the death of Litsmanna performed his duties, although an associate professor was unable to obtain because of the ban imposed by the Nazi leadership. In 1944 became a pastor in the Evangelical Church in Germany. In 1946 in the Soviet zone of occupation was appointed extraordinary professor of the theological faculty of the University of Berlin. Since 1947, in addition to the department in Berlin, headed professorship of the University of Halle. In 1950 became an honorary doctor of the theological faculty of the University of Gottingen. Many foreign Academy of Sciences elected her a member of ц┘land. ц┘land critical attitude to the political regime of the GDR led to his arrest (1953), but after spending three months in prison he was released. In 1958 he and his family emigrated and settled in Munster. In 1959 began to organize the Institute of New Testament textual.
The interests of ц┘land as a historian of the church were distributed not only in the history of early Christianity, he stood at the origins of the Commission for the Study of pietism, established in 1964. Aland - the author of works on the history of the Reformation, Lutheranism, the movement of awakening - for example, History of Christianity (Geschichte der Christenheit, 2 volumes, 1980, 1982), Reformers: Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, Calvin (Die Reformatoren. Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, Calvin, 1976), published the works of M. Luther, J. F. Spener, and others. But the main area of scientific activity remained ц┘land study and publication of the New Testament documents. The scientist continued research on the reconstruction of the Greek New Testament urteksta initiated Eberhard and Erwin Nestle. 'Nestle - Aland' - Novum Testamentum Graece (Nestle - Aland) - the so-called modern scientific edition of the Greek text of the New Testament, . takes into account most of the surviving New Testament papyri and other manuscripts (the latter, . 27 th edition was published in 1993),
. Aland published the New Testament concordances, or the symphony (ie. lists of all words, . incoming text, . location-specific), . and the so-called gospels synopses (in which the texts of the gospels for the convenience of comparison are available on page 4 column), . example, . Synopsis four Gospels with parallel passages from apocryphal gospels and the writings of the Church Fathers (Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum, . Locis parallelis evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis edidit Kurt Aland; 13 edition, . 1985),
. An important reference tool is its short list of Greek manuscripts of the New Testament (Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments; 2 edition, 1994).
Died of ц┘land in Munster April 13, 1994.