ANTHONY, Mark (Marcus Antonius)( The famous Roman statesman and military leader, friend and confidant of Caesar)
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Biography ANTHONY, Mark (Marcus Antonius)
(ca. 83-30 BC), also a member of the second triumvirate with Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Distinguished themselves in the cavalry, Anthony became one of the staff officers Gaya Julius Caesar in Gaul. In 51 BC. was elected quaestor (an official who was responsible for finance), the term of his magistracy also held at Caesars.
While in Rome in the critical 50 to AD when the powerful factions in the Senate have tried various ways to remove the command of the troops of Caesar, Antony has defended the interests of Caesar against the Senate and Pompey Gneya. At this time, Anthony was elected to the position of tribune of the people, which was crucial because the right of veto over decisions of any officials, but in January 49 BC. He was forced to flee to the north and seek refuge in the camp of Caesar. Caesar crossed the Rubicon once, moving from Tsizalpiyskoy Gaul in Italy proper 'for the protection of the tribunes'. In the ensuing civil war, Anthony played a significant role by participating in hostilities, Caesar in Italy and Greece, and during the absence of Caesar in 49-47 BC. commanded his troops in Italy. After a cooling in relations Caesar and Antony were reconciled and worked closely together during a joint consulate in 44 BC.
In March of that year, Caesar was assassinated by conspirators. His funeral speech of Antony so stirred the crowd, which stood at the head of the conspiracy Marc Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus thought it prudent to leave Rome. Politics maneuvering, . by Anthony spent the next few months, . undoubtedly contributed to the consolidation of its position and encouraged his ambitions, . However unfair treatment of securities Caesar, . arrogant attitude to his heir, Octavian, . conducted a set of forces, . numerous intrigues, . and attempt to rob Tsizalpiyskuyu Gaul from the governor of the province Decima Junius Brutus were questioned by Anthony,
. Senate, . spurred a great orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, . condemnation of Antony's bichuyuschih and impassioned speeches, . known as Philips, . came to the rescue Decima Brutus and Octavian ordered support in the fight against Anthony consuls, . elected on 43 BC,
. Troops were defeated Antony at the Battle of Moutinho (although both consul killed in battle), and Anthony himself returned to the north in trans-alpine Gaul.
Here's to him, however, soon joined by Lepidus and other rulers of the western provinces, and when the Senate contemptuously treated with Octavian, he also sided with Antony. To counter the combined forces of Antony, Octavian and Lepidus was impossible, and in November 43 BC. Antony, Octavian and Lepidus, in accordance with the law Titiya been appointed 'triumvirs for the device business in the State' for the next five years and given virtually unlimited powers. Having obtained the supreme power, triumvirs immediately proceeded to slaughter their real or imagined opponents, was killed and the enemy of Anthony Cicero. Moreover, the acute need for money prompted triumvirs to resort to the ruthless confiscation of property. Then (42 BC) Antony and Octavian crossed the Adriatic Sea and came into Macedonia, where the battle of Philippi, defeated the troops of Brutus and Cassius, Mark. As Octavian was ill command of the troops passed to Anthony, who distinguished himself as a brilliant military leader.
Subsequent to the years Anthony spent much of the East. In 41 BC. he renewed acquaintance with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, and the following winter spent with her in Egypt. In 40 BC. Anthony's wife, Fulvia, and his brother Lucius sowed discord between Antony and Octavian, revolted against Octavian in Perouse (sovr. Perugia) in central Italy. However, reconciliation was possible again after the Octavian took Perouse, and Fulvia died. Antony and Octavian in Brundizii signed an agreement under which they are actually divided the Roman republic, while Anthony was the eastern provinces, Octavian - the western, and Lepidus was given only the province of Africa. Antony married Octavia - sister of Octavian. In 39-38 BC. Anthony for the most part was in Greece, and his troops at this time won several victories over the Parthians. In 37 BC. new break with Octavian narrowly avoided, and an agreement was reached Galilee, extending the triumvirate for another five years.
However, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate. While the war with the Parthians (36 BC) has developed for Anthony failed, and his marriage to Cleopatra (probably at the same time) and thereafter in 33 BC. gap with the octave were a slap in the face of public opinion in Rome, . Octavian defeated (36 BC) prevented maritime shipping fleet in Italy Sextus Pompey, . son of the former enemy of Caesar Gneya Pompey the Great, . and (at the same time) did Lepidus triumvirskih authority,
. Followed by a sharp mutual recriminations, the opponents - Antony and Octavian - sought to belittle the achievements of each other. In 34 BC. Anthony led the successful military action in Armenia, and even captured the king Artavazd in addition, he held a number of successful reorganization of the eastern provinces. However, excessive honors, . Antony and Cleopatra bestowed her four children (one of whom was from Caesar, . three others from his own), . supporters of Octavian skillfully used to, . to portray Anthony oriental despot, . the charm of the Egyptian queen,
. Indeed, in the victory which he had celebrated Antony in Alexandria in the same 34 BC, he gave to Cleopatra and her children from large areas.
Perhaps Anthony behaved too arrogant, but it seems unlikely that he has become a real Asian despot, despised Roman customs. Of course, did not think so, and many prominent Romans, since only a small part of the Senate supported Octavian when in 32 BC. he deprived Antony of his powers and officially declared war on Cleopatra. Whole of Italy, however, united in the famous coniuratio Italiae, a confederation of the Italic supporters of Octavian, and when in 31 BC. Antony and Cleopatra, intending to land in Italy, sent troops to the west, near Cape Shares (in the north-western Greece), they were met by a powerful fleet of Octavian. In the sea battle occurred here Antony and Cleopatra was decisively defeated and fled to Egypt. The next year Octavian entered Alexandria, and Antony committed suicide, having a false news about the death of Cleopatra. Dying, he was brought to her, and died in her arms.