Ludovico Ariosto (Ariosto Lodovico)( Italian poet.)
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Biography Ludovico Ariosto (Ariosto Lodovico)
Born Sept. 8, 1474 in Reggio Emilia, a child moved with his parents in Ferrara. Spent their lives in the service of the Duke d'Este, it is believed that the poem Orlando Furioso (Orlando Furioso) was written in praise of their kind.
At the age of fifteen years Ariosto entered the University of Ferrara, where he studied law. Then he studied Latin under the guidance of scientist-humanist Gregorio da Spoleto - probably to this period belong the earliest of his poems in Latin and Italian languages. Ode to the Latin language to Filiroyu (A Filiroe) was written, apparently, in 1494, when King Charles VIII of France was preparing to invade Italy. In this small elegant exercise in the spirit of Horace Ariosto expresses his contempt for the acts of the powerful. In 1500 his father died, held important posts in the Duchy of Ferrara. Responsibility for the family fell on the shoulders of Ariosto, the eldest son. By this time he had already served several years at the court of d'Este and in 1503 entered the service of young influential Cardinal Ippolito d'Este.
Ariosto counted for the post of court poet, but his duties were much more prosaic. In subsequent years, it has been entrusted the diplomatic missions, sometimes associated with serious risks. Ferrara's worst enemy at the time was Pope Julius II. Ariosto made several trips to Rome, explaining and possibly defending the policy of Ferrara at the papal court. The most adventurous trip was in 1510, undertaken in the interests of Ippolito d'Este, who brought upon himself the displeasure of Pope particular. Julius ordered that Ariosto in the Tiber. Fortunately, the poet managed to escape from Rome.
In 1513, at the feast of John the Baptist in Florence, he met a woman whom he loved all his life then and glorified in poetry, - Alessandro Benuchchi, the wife of Tito Strozzi. Two years later her husband died, but their relationship remain secret because Ariosto had ecclesiastical benefice, and marriage meant the loss of their. Roughly between 1526 and 1530 and Alessandra Ludovico secretly married.
In October of 1515 graduated from Ariosto's poem Orlando Furioso, in April next year it was published. Ippolito, to whom she was devoted, took her cold. In 1517 Ariosto entered the service of his brother Ippolito, Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. Here he was able to devote more time for creativity. In 1521 came a second, slightly revised edition of Orlando Furioso.
By this same period, roughly between 1517 and 1525, include seven so-called Ariosto catir. This poetic message in the spirit of Horace, written in the form of free friendly conversations. You can not treat them as autobiography, and yet they shed light on the personality of the poet. For the court theater Ferrara, Ariosto, scrupulously following the Roman designs, written as comedies. Can recognize the most successful comedy Svodnya (La Lena), first set in 1528, where Ariosto Ferrara gave a colorful sketches of life at that time.
By 1522 the financial affairs of Ariosto shaken. Ferrara again fought with the Pope, the salaries paid irregularly. Ariosto was sent to the Commissioner in the mountainous region in western Tuscany Garfagnana. The city had recently returned under the authority of Ferrara and badly needed someone who can bring order. Ariosto arrived there in February 1522 and spent three of the most difficult years in my life.
In 1525, with the return to Ferrara, began the last, the most favorable period in the life of Ariosto. He was recognized as the greatest Italian poet of our time, and money, cluster in Garfanyane, enough to buy a house. Straightened the poem in accordance with the norms of the literary language of that time and adding six new songs (total was 46, is the third and last edition of the poem), he published it in 1532. Ariosto died July 6, 1533.
Orlando Furioso may seem devoid of integrity, chaotic: Ariosto has many plot lines simultaneously, weaving one into another. Having brought up a thrilling one line or a spicy moment, he throws her to start a new line, which, in turn, is replaced by the following. Then he can return to the first line, to develop it a little further and introduce a group of new characters included in the new situation. Generally accepted, . that this major poem (there are about 39 000 lines) combine the three central themes: Madness of Roland (French epic hero), the legendary war of Christians under the leadership of Charlemagne with the Saracens, the love story of Ruggiero and Saracen maiden-warrior Bradamante, . mythical founder of the genus d'Este,
. With blshim reason, however, can be identified madness of Roland as the central theme, which in any way relate to all other events of the poem.
The author draws countless characters, hurrying through the woods, where the blshaya part of the action, in search of someone or something desirable or lost. Sometimes these searches comical, sometimes whimsical, sometimes deployed by the laws of courtly romance. Little by little makes clear their relationship with the central finding the space of Roland: his earnest, selfless, all-consuming pursuit of the one he lifted up so high that, beyond human nature, it has lost reality. No woman, nothing in the world commensurate with the enormous power of his illusions, not to mention the frivolous beauty, which he placed in the center of the universe. Upon learning of her betrayal, he goes mad. This episode (XXIII-XXIV songs) shifted Pushkin ( 'knight in shining waters Prev ...')
. Although the topic, . raised by the author, . very serious - the power of illusion, . make people endlessly chase after the fact, . What he could never have fully, . test, . that being faithful to the ever-changing world, . - Syllable poem sparkles with wit,
. Plot Orlando Furioso carefully built and at the same time marked by an extraordinary diversity. Scenes of action is almost the entire known world in that era, and the countless figures of men and women, found in the pages of poems, distinguished no less lively than the characters of Elizabethan drama. Due to this diversity, combined with lively narrative and harmony build Orlando Furioso can be called a work in which most fully reflected the spirit of the Italian High Renaissance.