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BALZAC HonorL (Balzac Honore de)

( French writer, which recreates a complete picture of social life of his time.)

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Biography BALZAC HonorL (Balzac Honore de)
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. Born May 20, 1799 in Tours, his family, originally peasants who came from southern France (Languedoc)
. Original name Balsa (Balssa) succeeded his father when he arrived in 1767 in Paris, and began there a long bureaucratic career, which continued from 1798 in Tours, occupying a number of administrative posts. Particle 'de' in 1830 added to the name of the son of Honore, claiming noble origin. Balzac spent six years (1806-1813) as a boarder Vendome college, complete their education in Tours and Paris, where the family returned in 1814. After working for three years (1816-1819) clerk in the judicial office, he persuaded the parents to allow him to try his luck in the literature. Between 1819 and 1824 Honore issued (under a pseudonym) with a half-dozen novels, written under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau, V. Scott and 'horror novels'. In collaboration with various hackworker produced numerous novels, frankly commercial wing.
In 1822 he began his relationship with sorokapyatiletney Madame de Berny (mind. 1836). Passionate initially feeling emotionally enriched him, and later moved to their relationship platonic plane, and Lily in the Valley (Le Lys dans la valle, 1835-1836) gave the highest degree perfect picture of friendship.

Attempt fortune in publishing and printed matter (1826-1828) drew Balzac in large debts. Once again turning to writing, he published the novel in 1829, last Shuang (Le dernier Shouan; revised and published in 1834 under the name. Chouans - Les Chouans). This was the first book, which was published under his own name, along with a humorous handbook for husbands Physiology marriage (La Physiologie du mariage, 1829), it has attracted the attention of the public to a new author. At the same time began the major work of his life: in 1830 appeared the first scenes of private life (Scnes de la vie prive), . c undoubted masterpiece of house cats, . Racket (La Maison du chat qui pelote), . in 1831, went first philosophical novels and short stories (Contes philosophiques),
. In several more years, Balzac was moonlighting as a freelance journalist, but the main force from 1830 to 1848 were given a large series of novels and stories, known worldwide as The Human Comedy (La Comdie humaine)

. Treaty on the publication of the first series of a study of manners (tudes de moeurs, . 1833-1837) Balzac concluded, . when many volumes (all came out 12) were not yet completed or just begun, . as was his habit to first sell the finished product for publication in periodicals, . then publish it in book form and, . Finally, . include in a given collection,
. Studies consisted of scenes - a private, provincial, Parisian, political, military and rural life. Scenes of private life, . devoted mainly youth and inherent problems, . were not tied to specific circumstances and place, but the scenes of provincial, . Paris and rural life were played out in a precisely defined environment, . that is one of the most distinctive and original features of the Comedie Humaine,

In addition to the desire to display the social history of France, Balzac intended to diagnose society and offer medicine to treat his disease. This goal is clearly felt throughout the cycle, but also figure prominently in the philosophical sketches (tudes philosophiques), the first meeting which happened between 1835 and 1837. Perceptions about the manners were to present 'investigation' and Philosophical studies - to identify 'causes'. Balzac's philosophy is a curious combination of scientific materialism, theosophy E. Swedenborg and other mystics, IK Lafater physiognomy, phrenology F. J. Gall, magnetism FA Mesmer and the occult. All of this match, sometimes a very convincing way, with official Catholicism and political conservatism, in support of which Balzac spoke openly. Two aspects of this philosophy are of particular importance to his work: firstly, . deep belief in the 'second sight', . mysterious property, . gives its holder an opportunity to recognize or guess the facts or events, . witness that he was not (Balzac considered himself extremely gifted in this respect), and secondly, . based on the opinions of Mesmer's concept of thought as some kind of 'ethereal substance', . or 'fluid',
. The idea consists of the will and feelings, and the person projecting it into the outside world, making it larger or smaller pulse. Hence the idea of the destructive power of thought: it lies vital energy, accelerated spending which brings death. This clearly illustrates the magic symbols shagreen (La Peau de chagrin, 1831)

. The third main section of the cycle must have an analytical studies (tudes analytiques), . on 'principles', . But Balzac did not clarify its intentions on this score, in fact, he completed only two volumes of these studies: seriocomic Physiology of marriage and the small troubles of married life (Petites misres de la vie conjugale, . 1845-1846),

The main outlines of his ambitions Balzac identified in autumn 1834 and then successively filled the cell target scheme. Allowing yourself distracted, he wrote in imitation of Rabelais series of amusing, although obscene 'medieval' stories entitled Naughty tales (Contes drolatiques, 1832-1837), were not included in the composition of the Comedie Humaine. Name for ever escalating cycle was found in 1840 or 1841, and the new edition, the first endowed with this title which began publication in 1842. It was retained by the same principle of division, as in the sketches 1833-1837, but Balzac was added to it 'Preface', which explained their objectives. In the so-called 'definitive edition' includes 1869-1876 Naughty Stories, Theater (Thtre) and a number of letters.

In his criticism there is no consensus as to how the writer managed to correctly portray the French aristocracy, although he was proud of his knowledge of the world. Not interested artisans and factory workers, . He reached the highest, . supposedly, . persuasive in describing the various representatives of the middle class: clerks - Officials (Les Employs), . judicial clerks and attorneys - Case of trusteeship (L'Interdiction, . 1836), . Colonel Shaba (Le Colonel Chabert, . 1832); financiers - Baron Banking House (La Maison Nucingen, . 1838); journalists - Lost Illusions (Illusions perdues, . 1837-1843), small manufacturers and traders - History of greatness and the fall of Caesar Birotto (Histoire de la grandeur et decadence de Csar Birotteau, . 1837),
. Among the Scenes of private life, on the feelings and passions, stand abandoned woman (La Femme abandonne), Thirty woman (La Femme de trente ans, 1831-1834), Daughter of Eve (Une Fille d've, 1838). In scenes of provincial life, not only recreates the atmosphere of small towns, . but also portrayed painful 'storm in a teacup', . who violate the peace within everyday life - a priest of Tours (Le Cur de Tours, . 1832), . Eugenie Grandet (Eugnie Grandet, . 1833), . Pierrette (Pierrette, . 1840),
. In the novels Mirue Ursula (Ursule Mirout) and Balamutka (La Rabouilleuse, 1841-1842) are shown violent family quarrels about inheritance. But even gloomier presents the human community in the scenes of Parisian life. Balzac loved Paris and did much to preserve the memory of the now forgotten streets and corners of the French capital. However, he believed the city hellhole and compared reaching here 'struggle for life' to war on the prairies, as they are portrayed in his novels, one of his favorite authors F. Cooper. Greatest interest of the scenes of political life is dark matter (Une Tnbreuse Affaire, 1841), where for a moment, there is the figure of Napoleon. The scenes of military life (Scnes de la vie militaire) include only two of the novel: Chouans and Passion in the Desert (Une Passion dans le dsert, 1830) - Balzac intended to significantly supplement their. Scenes of rural life (Scnes de la vie de campagne) generally devoted to describing the dark and rapacious peasants, . although in such novels, . as a country doctor (Le Mdecin de campagne, . 1833) and the village priest (Le Cur de village, . 1839), . significant place was given to the presentation of political, . economic and religious views,

Balzac was the first great writer, focusing on the background material and 'image' of his characters, before him no one is as portrayed greed and ruthless careerism as the main living incentives. The subjects of his novels are often based on financial intrigue and speculation. He became known as his 'through the characters': the person who played a leading role in one of the novels, then there is in others, is discovered in a new way and in other circumstances. It is also noteworthy that in the development of his theory of thought, he inhabits his own artistic world of people covered by an obsession or a passion. Among them - a usurer in Gobsec (Gobseck, 1830), the mad artist in an unknown masterpiece (Le Chef-d'oeuvre inconnu, 1831, new ed. 1837), . miser in Eugenie Grandet, . chemist-maniac in search of the absolute (La Recherche de l'absolu, . 1834), . blinded by love to the daughters of the old man in the Father Goriot (Le Pre Goriot, . 1834 - 18 35), . vengeful spinster and an incorrigible womanizer in Cousin Bette (La Cousine Bette, . 1846), . jailbird in the Father Goriot and Shine and poverty of courtesans (Splendeurs et misres des courtisanes, . 1838 - 18 47),
. This trend, along with a tendency toward the occult and the horrors questioned the view of human comedy as the highest achievement of realism in prose. However, the perfection of narrative technique, . Skill descriptions, . taste for the dramatic intrigue, . interest in the smallest details of everyday life, . sophisticated analysis of psychic experiences, . including the love (novel Zolotoglazaya girl - La Fille aux yeux d'or was a pioneering study of perverted inclination), . as well as the strongest re-created the illusion of reality gives him the right to be called 'father of the modern novel',
. Immediate successors of Balzac in France, Flaubert (in spite of the severity of his critical assessments), E. Zola and the naturalists, M. Proust, as well as contemporary author of the novel cycles, of course, learned a lot from him. His influence is, and later, in the twentieth century, when the classic novel was seen as an outdated form. Set of nearly a hundred names of the Comedie Humaine demonstrates the amazing versatility of this prolific genius, which anticipated almost all of the subsequent discoveries.

Balzac worked tirelessly, he was famous for the fact that he used another radical revision of the proofs for the composition and significant changes to the text. He paid tribute to amusements in the Rabelaisian spirit, . willingly pay a visit fashionable friends, . traveled abroad and was not a stranger to love affair, . among which is its relationship with the Polish countess and the wife of Ukrainian landowner Evelina Hanska,
. Through these relationships, developed in the 1832 or 1833, came into the world a priceless collection of letters addressed to the Ghana Balzac Letters to the stranger (Lettres l'trangre, tt.1 - 2 opubl.1899-1906, TT. 3 - 4 opubl.1933-1950) and Conversation (Correspondance, publ. 1951) with Zulma Carro, whose friendship with the writer carried through his life. Ghana has promised to marry him after the death of her husband. This happened in 1841, but then there were complications. Exhaustion of the colossal work, indecision, Ghana and the first signs of serious illness marred the last years of Balzac, and when in March 1850 finally took place on the wedding, he left to live only five months. Balzac died in Paris on August 18, 1850.

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BALZAC HonorL (Balzac Honore de), photo, biography
BALZAC HonorL (Balzac Honore de), photo, biography BALZAC HonorL (Balzac Honore de)  French writer, which recreates a complete picture of social life of his time., photo, biography
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