(1899-1986) Known primarily laconic prose fantasies, . often disguised arguments about serious scientific problems or to take the form of adventure or detective stories,
. In winter's day on Aug. 24, 1899 in Buenos Aires in the family lawyer, Jorge
(1874-1938) and Leonor Acevedo de Borges
(1876-1975), . living on the street Tucumц║n, . located between Suipacha and Esmeralda streets, . house, . which belonged to Leonor parents, . baby, . named Jorge Luis
. Most of the children held the child at home. His father published one novel and three books written, but destroyed.
His father was also a philosopher, agnostic, related through the maternal line with the genus Hezlem of Staffordshire (England). He collected a huge library of English literature. Fanny Hezlem, grandmother, Jorge Luis
, taught children and grandchildren of British. This language Borges
possessed excellent: in 8 years he translated Oscar Wilde fairy tale - so much so moved that it was published in the journal "Sur". Later, Borges
translated Virginia Woolf, excerpts from Faulkner. Stories Kipling, head of the "wake on Finneganu" Joyce. Perhaps, he took over from the British love of paradoxes, esseisticheskuyu ease and scene of interest that. Many writers joked that Borges
- English writer, who writes in Spanish.
. "Since my childhood, when her father was struck by blindness in our family silence implied that I should implement in the literature what the circumstances are not given to make my father
. It was taken for granted (and such a belief is much stronger than the wish). It was expected that I would be a writer. I began to write in six or seven years. "
In 1914 the family went to Europe. Autumn Jorge Luis
began attending Geneva College. In 1919, Mr.. family moved to Spain, 31 December 1919. in "Greece" appeared first poem by Jorge Luis
, in which the author tried hard to be Walt Whitman ". Soon he is in the group "ultraistov", which in Soviet literary stated that it expressed "anarchic rebellion against the petty-bourgeois intellectuals and bourgeois philistine vulgarity limited.
himself nothing intelligible about his "ultraizme" not written
. In general - like the young Mayakovsky: "A pack redraw life. / / Color charms of cardboard / washed daily fate, / / and the new world of smiling / / transforming the stolen time ...".
In Buenos Aires in 1921, our hero came back poet. By 1930, wrote and published seven books, founded three magazines and worked more in the twelve, and at the end of the twenties began to write stories. "The period from 1921 to 1930 I was full of violent activity, but, perhaps, indeed reckless and even pointless," - he then formulate.
. Around 1937 the first time entered the library on a permanent basis, where he held a "deeply unhappy nine years
. Here he is, leading a quiet life of a bookworm, has written a scattering masterpieces: "Pierre Menard", "rotting Uqbar, Orbis Tertius", "Lottery in Babylon", "Library of Babel", "Garden of divergent trails". Work was not enough, the money they paid too little. Activities had to be simulated - all was well in the Soviet.
"All his library work I performed in the first hour, and then quietly went into the basement stacks, and the remaining five o'clock reading or writing ... Male staff were interested only horse racing, soccer tournament so greasy stories. One of the readers had been raped, she walked into the women's room. Everyone said that this could not happen again ladies room is next to the male.
. The invention of the century: "Typewriter"
. Composing "Pierre Menard, author of" Don Quixote "(1938) Borges
himself has defined as the average between the essay and the" real story "
. However, the concept of classical Borges
can be seen here in its entirety. The fictional writer Pierre Menard, however Bibliographically described as real (in detail the composition of its archive), tried to compose "Doc Quixote.
. "Not a second" Don Quixote "he wanted to write - it would be easy - but it was" Don Quixote "
. Needless to say, that he did not mean a mechanical copying, not intended to rewrite the novel. His daring idea was to create multiple pages, which would coincide - word for word and line in the string - with written by Miguel de Cervantes ". The method was: "It's good to study Spanish, to revive in his Catholic faith, to fight the Moors or Turks, to forget the history of Europe between 1602 and 1918 years ...".
However, this method was rejected as too light. I should have stayed Pierre Menard, and yet come to "Don Quixote". Then it turns out that Menard to 'Don Quixote "still come, ie. texts of the same word for word, but the meaning they express, according to Borges
, are quite different. Around this paradox is built all the narrative. For Borges
this was a game of mind, a sort of fun.
But precisely because of this text, written in the basement of the library in 1938 and subsequently grew a whole literary movement. The story "Pierre Menard" handy after 30-40 years after creation, when the glory of Borges
, especially in the U.S., was very powerful. I, of course, talking about postmodernism, calculated Borges
, modeled them in this story.
. In the postmodern context of the story is devoted to the fact that the new texts is not possible, that the number of texts in general is limited and moreover they have written
. Books are so many that just do not have to write new opportunities and even the meaning. This "Don Quixote" real Pierre Menard, who was actually there, ie. literature is more real than the writer himself. So a writer writes books, . a ready-made books from the Universal Library (Borges
gave her image in the "Library of Babel", . written in the same basement) write yourself a writer, . and writing is "repeater", . theoretical possibility which has proved an example of Pierre Menard,
. In pursuit of already written, someone else's word, a strange thought is a kind of fatalism and sense the end of the literature. "Me, - says Pierre Menard, - led by the mysterious duty literally play it (Cervantes - MZ) spontaneously created novel.
Essentially, Jorge Luis
, wanting to get to India, discovered America. There is no doubt that the writer of a librarian, a desk which was in close proximity to the bookcase, and he became acutely aware of its dependence as a writer from the already published. Books pressed, forcing the other person's word is not to assimilate and do not dissociate, but remain in the natural uniqueness.
The book "The Gold of Tigers" (1972) Borges
published a short story, "Four-cycle. The idea is simple: "stories of all four". The first - on a fortified city, which are assaulting and defending heroes. Second - the return. Third - the search. Fourth - the suicide of God.
"The history of all four - repeat Borges
in the final. - And how much time is left us no, we will recite them - in one form or another ". In fact, the ideology of the reader, transposed into the technology writer's work. And it is the transposition and can be considered the main landmark and the invention of Borges
. He invented the "typewriter" (reminiscent of something logical machine Ramon Llull, . invented in the XIII century, . which he loved to write), . continuously running generator texts, . which produces new texts from the Old and thereby prevents the literature from the death,
. "As a tool of philosophical investigation logical machine - the absurdity. However, it would be absurd as a tool of literary and poetic creativity "- remarks Borges
. Thanks to his invention by the end of the twentieth century literary studies is available to all, including people with no talent and even the ability
. It must only be a reader. So Borges
served to ensure the principles of democracy and equality in the literature through the introduction of appropriate technology "legitimation plagiarism."
. Although in practice it turns out that only Borges
could shine expanded bibliographies, and only he could revive the secondary character, giving her a second life
. In epigones (especially post-Soviet period) literary corpses do not stir. Recently, we have tried to publish a series of forgotten all marginal books about which he remembered in his time only Borges
. The venture has shown that reading them is boring and unnecessary. Historical and cultural role of the material - only serve smalt for Borges
. Outside the delightful mosaic of marginal meaningless and dead. Borges
, of course, was a reader and bibliographer, has turned these two classes in literature. But it was also in the fact that he could very well choose the material that is consistent with the philosophical and scientific and methodological issues of the day. Having no place to go into details, except to say that, for example, the same "Garden of divergent trails" and corresponds with structuralism in general, and the hermeneutics of Gadamer, and works with the Baden school of Neo-Kantianism (D. Rickert, IN. Windelband), relevant in the second half of the twentieth century.
From the library to death
In 1946, Argentina was installed dictatorship of President Peron. Borges
once kicked out of the library, since the new regime was dissatisfied with his writings and sayings. As he recalled Borges
, his "mail notification" that he was promoted to the post: the library moved to the post of Inspector of Trade in poultry and pigs in urban markets. So Borges
painful existed as unemployed in 1946, until 1955, when the dictatorship was overthrown by the revolution.
However, in 1950, Mr.. he was elected president of the Argentine Society of Writers, which was one of the few strongholds of resistance to dictatorship, but this society will soon dissolved. In 1955, Mr.. accomplished revolution, and Borges
appointed director of the National Library and professor of English and American Literature University of Buenos Aires.
. But it's too late, right on the French proverb: "When we got his pants, we have no ass"
. By 1955 Borges
had lost his sight completely. "Glory, as well as blindness, came to me gradually. I have never sought ". His first book in 1930-1940-s failed, "History of Eternity", released in 1936, a year bought a 37 and by going to all customers around from house to house to apologize and say thank you. In 1950-ies. Borges
has become world famous in 1960 is considered a classic.
Perhaps the sudden fame Borges
served as the success of the "new novel", a detailed manifesto that "The era of suspicion" Nathalie Sarraute published just in 1950. "... When a writer, . - Wrote Sarraute, . - Planning a tell a story and imagine, . as he would have to write "The Marquise went out at five and with a sneer look at this reader, . they acquire doubt, . hand does not rise ... "This also should be added to the disappointment of reality, . described in the novel, . and the feeling of boredom from the traditional narrative (the "Marquis appeared in five).,
. That which came the evolution of the European novel, in Borges
was already in finished form
. No wonder that in mid-1970 he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature. But he has not received due approving statements about the Pinochet coup. Liberal terror Swedish Social Democrats, which control the awarding of prizes - the harsh reality. As with all Social Democrats, they think about literature in the last turn.
In 1974. He resigned from his post as director of the National Library, and began to live in seclusion in a small apartment in Buenos Aires. Modest, lonely old man. Author of books "History of Eternity" (1936), "Fictional History" (1944), "Aleph" (1949), "New investigations" (1952), "Creator" (1960), "Message Brodie" (1970), "The Book Sand "(1975) and others. Commendatore of the Italian Republic, . Commander of the Order of the Legion of Honor for his services in literature and art ", . CBE "Distinguished Service" and the Spanish Order of the Cross of Alfonso the Wise ", . Honorary Doctor of the Sorbonne, . Oxford and Columbia Universities, . Cervantes Prize winner,
. And this is only part titulature.
In 1981, he still says: "And yet I have no sense that I scribbled. In a sense, the young enthusiasm as if I was closer than when I was a young man. Now I do not think that happiness is unattainable ... "
In 1986, he died of liver cancer. He was buried in Geneva. One emigrant reported that at first no one could make out not only the content of epitaph, but even the set at which it is made language. Subscribe by philological Chairs Geneva gave the result: a quotation from "Beowulf". "Explicitly epitaph, - concludes emigrant - carefully selected and designed for long-standing controversy exegetes". However, in Russia the text of the inscription is not known.
. In 1982, in a lecture titled "Blindness" Borges
said: "If we consider, . that darkness may be a heavenly blessing, . then who "own lives" is more blind? Who can better understand ourselves? Using the words of Socrates, . Who can better know yourself, . than blind? ",
was not just learned, but also transformed into a creative matter their plight
. Accumulation of cultural images and symbols - it is a consequence, the reason is captured in the sense of being the last scion of the family, a dead-end branch, which does not allow the escape. The writer had neither wife nor children, he was drawn to his sister Nora and her mother, who partly served as a writer's wife:
. "It has always been my companion throughout - especially in recent years, when I began to go blind - and understanding, forgiving one another
. For many years, until the last few years, she performed for me all the secretarial work ... That's it ... safely and successfully contributed to my literary career. "
. Feeling a "final" from which I have compressed the heart, caused by Borges
tragic worldview (with motifs of solitude and seclusion) and the installation on a collection of the anthology, a compendium of world thought and culture, "sum"
. Hence, in general alien to look at the culture, . opinion traveler or dispassionate appraiser, . looking at, . he does not belong, . and hence is a fundamental feature of Borges
, . where he taught, . precisely, . infecting the world literature since 1970 and later years: free game with cultural deposits, . reupload of smalt cultural mosaics.,
. History of the Future
. The most notable manifestation of the game - a description of virtual reality
. The peak of Borges
in this direction are two books - "Fictional History" and "Aleph". Mimicking these two books has created and continues to generate huge amount of imitative literary production. Borges
invented all the usual attributes of reality, inserts into it, but on a certain principle.
. This principle is concluded in filling up the reality of logical completeness: pre-assigned or determined deductively certain parameters or combination of signs, . which in our reality is not implemented, . and construct a virtual reality with these parameters and features,
. Thus filled logically possible "cells" of some global table. This is a strictly scientific structuralist approach.
. Say, . central (for this part of the creative work of Borges
) the text - "The Library of Babel" - draws a kind of Library, . which contains all theoretically conceivable book, . including "a detailed history of the future, . autobiography archangels, . correct library catalog, . thousands and thousands of false catalogs, . proof of the falsity of the correct directory, . Gnostic Gospel of Basilides, . Comment on this gospel, . comment on the commentary of the Gospel, . true story of your own death, . translation of every book in all languages ..,
. treatise, which could be written (but not) Bedoy on mythology, the Saxons, the lost works of Tacitus. "
On the one hand, it is pure fantasy game. However, these fantasies composed in the late thirties - early forties, are the stock of images, from which borrowed its model of science. Typically, scientific models arise on the basis of precisely shaped models derived from the common cultural reservoir, and Borges
was one of those who have made a lot of this capacity.
. It is known, . example, . that for the famous French cultural Michel Foucault invented by Borges
in his story "The Analytical Language of John Wilkins" (1952) classification of "a Chinese encyclopedia" provided the impetus for the creation of "archeology of knowledge",
. It is a Borges
could find protoobrazy his theory of myth, "the father of structuralism," K. Levi-Strauss. Specifically, . Borges
' idea of "feverish Library, . which random volumes in continuous solitaire converted into other, . mixing and denying all, . argued that, . as maddened deity ", . directly refer to the explication of the myth as a tool for neutralizing the binary oppositions, . Levi-Strauss.,
. He also "Structure of myths," which examines the myth, based on at once from all the options, in which it exists, corresponds to the "Garden of divergent trails"
. It should be compared with images of the Borges
story "Funes, the miracle of memory" (1944) study of "Fundamentals of language" (1956) R. Jacobson and M. Halle, highlighting analogical and metaphorical codes. All the same "Garden divergent trails" can be compared with images of algorithmic information theory, A. Kolmogorov, and "Letters to God" - with the same Kolmogorov algorithmic complexity theory, "Analysis of creativity Herbert Kueyna" - with structuralist theory plot. The definition of "pictorial space", this S. Lotman in 1988, follows directly from borhesovskih ideas about filling the real virtual books. Etc., etc.
. Whatever it, . used Levi-Strauss, . Jacobson and Lotman imagery or not Borges
(Academician Kolomogorov - certainly no, . and Lotman - probably yes, . because the Tartu school held Borges
in the field of view), . But Borges
is a unique case: many of its imagery products are similar to scientific models of the twentieth century, and often anticipate their,
. His thinking imanentno structurally and lingvistichno.
. In "Tleе└" (1938) described a virtual civilization, . which culture consists of only one discipline - psychology, . and "the inhabitants of this planet understands the world as a series of mental processes, . not developable space, . and in temporal sequence ",
. This is the picture of the world, which occurs when certain types of aphasia, while working only one hemisphere. In this picture Borges
began long before the publication of works of functional brain asymmetry. And in general, "Tlц╤n" contains a lot of any heuristically valuable ideas. Example, . of literary criticism in corruption: "Criticism is sometimes invent authors: using two different works - for example" Tao Te Ching "and" Thousand and One Nights ", . - Attribute them to one author, . then in good faith determine the psychology of this interesting homme de lettres ... ",
. In this way we still have no one went, but it is very promising.
. Game principle, . which Borges
reassert his authority in the literature of the twentieth century, . went through all his work, . leading to, . that the ontological (the death, . life) and epistemological (the space, . time, . number) category are converted into characters, . which can be accessed as easily, . as a literary or cultural images of characters (cross, . Rose, . mirror, . dream, . range, . Sphere, . maze, . case, . lottery, etc.),
. Blindness as a kind of step on the path to death, not only gave the feeling of isolation in the world of images in the world of culture, but also the explicit freedom in dealing with concept of nothingness. And above all - the withdrawal of the opposition of reality and unreality, namely the concept by the end of the twentieth century was the domain of mass culture and many served as the dissemination of fame Borges
. For him, the antithesis of the real / unreal does not exist, and he lived in a world of texts, feeling his own character, a book which he wrote
. Moreover, he wrote a book in which he describes, who wrote a book in which he again wrote a book ... and so on to infinity, which is immortality, because time spatsializovano.
. And at this moment, when I look in the book Borges
and koshus simultaneously on the monitor, and your fingers writing an article, Borges
was alive, because I have now, he wrote his book in which he wrote the book ...