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Hieronymus Bosch (Bosch Hieronymus)

( Flemish painter.)

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Biography Hieronymus Bosch (Bosch Hieronymus)
(ca. 1450-1516)
Hieronymus Bosch (real name is Hieronymus van Aken) was born in the town of 's-Hertogenbosch in the Netherlands about. 1450; where he joined the brotherhood of Our Lady, and worked for nearly forty years until his death in 1516. In addition to these meager facts about the artist's life is unknown.
Judging by the pictures Bosch, he looked far from optimistic about the possibility of redemption of human sin. In most of the artist's people seemed immersed in a sea of madness, and when the world is the Savior, He is subjected to cruel taunts from the suffocating hatred of people. Even the saints in the paintings of Bosch at the time of prayer and penance, are obsessed with the torments and temptations of the devil.

At Bosch painted countertop (Madrid, Prado) shows the seven deadly sins, death, Judgment, Hell and Paradise. In this early work has shown the passion of the author to moralize. In the medallion with the image of Hell first appearance of the monster, which then flooded most of the paintings of Bosch. Some of them are known to Western art from the Middle Ages, others - a loathsome hybrids - are generated by a sophisticated fantasy of the Bosch.

Painting Carrying the Cross (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum) reveals another feature of Bosch's painting - his deliberate archaism. The composition is built in two tiers, which leads to compaction and compression of pictorial space. In the upper part of the crowd carries away the meek and humble Christ, and the bottom shows led to Golgotha two robbers, one of whom believed before death. Squeezing space, making it flat, the artist made sure that the figures of Christ and the robbers come to the foreground.

The contrast between the images of Christ and the evil of mankind is the main theme of the series The Passion of the Lord, which occupies a special place painting Christ Carrying the Cross (Ghent, Museum of Fine Arts). On the surface of the picture literally 'stuck on' a lot of ugly faces brutal. In the mid-almost lost among the bright and gentle face of the suffering of Christ. Bosch is well learned important truth: to portray the good is not easy. Only in opposition to the obvious, obvious evil, the artist can give some idea of shining the light of Christ.

Brushes Bosch belong to several triptychs. The earliest of them, probably, of hay (ok. 1500, Madrid, Prado). In its central part shows a large load of hay, surrounded by many people on a variety of professions. Among them are dominated by confusion, anger and violence, and fantastic monsters, who lead the procession, give it a sinister appearance. The picture shows an old Flemish proverb: 'The World - a haystack: how can each have enough'. Thus, Bosch, paid tribute to human stupidity and greed, to clarify his thoughts he depicted in the foreground of allegory seven deadly sins. Against the background of the sky shows Christ with outstretched arms, in suffering contemplates the madness of mankind. On the lateral wings of the triptych are placed images of Hell and Paradise. When the wings are closed, visitors gaze presents a landscape with a figure of the traveler. Perhaps this is an allegory of life's journey, where the man at every step of the sins lie in wait.

In the triptych The Temptation of St.. Anthony (1505, Lisbon, the National Museum of ancient art) depicts the world of twinkling skyline ghostly visions and hideous creatures, crawling among the ruins of the dark. These fantastic images can embody many hidden meanings, but to decipher them is not easy. The left part of a triptych painted in reddish-brown color scheme, the tension is only slightly mitigated by the blue sheen. With great difficulty can be found a figure of St.. Anthony, surrounded by wizards, which are likely to serve as black mass.

Garden of earthly delights (1504, Prado) - the largest (2.1? 3,9 m) and the most mysterious creatures of Bosch. On the outside wings of the triptych shows the world in the third day of Creation, on the inside before Heaven and Hell. Invented by artist world teems with bizarre images: naked people collect giant strawberries, make love inside a crystal ball or a horse galloping on songbirds, exceeding the size of the people themselves. The garden might seem like the abode of happiness, if not the absurdity of living in his creatures, and not a grotesque nature of what is happening.

Scientists unsuccessfully seeking a clue to the surprisingly Bosch. It sees that the alchemist, the great thinker, inspired by the writings of the mystics of earlier times, the artist held in captivity rites heretical sect. None of these explanations do not seem satisfactory. Images Bosch - sharp, ironic, fantastic, in his world dominated eschatological motifs.

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