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Johann Joachim Winckelmann (Winckelmann Johann Joachim)

( German art dealer and historian of ancient art.)

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Biography Johann Joachim Winckelmann (Winckelmann Johann Joachim)
The son of a poor shoemaker, was born in Stendal December 9, 1717. Despite the poverty, in Winkelman in 1735 was a wonderful opportunity to attend the Berlin gymnasium, two years later he was awarded a scholarship to study theology at Halle, in 1741 he went to Jena, where he studied medicine. In 1743 Winkelman led the school where he taught ancient Jewish, Greek and Latin, geometry and logic, but in 1748 resigned as a teacher.
Career Winckelmann began after 1748, when he became librarian of a large private library, near Leipzig, and became acquainted with the masterpieces of Italian painting. In 1755 he published an article Reflections on the imitation of Greek creations in painting and sculpture (Gedanken ber die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst), . which used the phrase "noble simplicity and calm grandeur 'to describe the excellent properties of Greek art,
. Winkelman approached the papal nuncio, who told him about the glories of Rome, and in 1754 he decided to become a member of the Roman Catholic Church. In September 1755 he went to Rome, where he settled at Monte Pincio. Winckelmann studied the monuments, . met with the painter-classicist R. Mengs and was presented to Cardinal Albani, . biggest collectors, . who appointed him a pension and invited to stay at the Villa Albani, surrounded by works of ancient art,
. Under these circumstances, Winkelmann soon matured plan major work devoted to the art of antiquity.

Although his research focused on Winkelman Roman antiquities, he often traveled to southern Italy, visiting in 1758, 1762, 1764 and 1767 Naples, with its wonderful museums.

The first significant publication of Winckelmann, published in 1760 catalog of the collection Stosha was devoted gemmae. A key principle of his approach to the ancient art was to reveal differences between the works of masters of antiquity and the Italian Renaissance. In 1761 he completed a volume on ancient architecture, based on an analysis of the Greek temples of Paestum, and in 1762 - one more volume on the architecture of the temples in Dzhirdzhenti (ancient Agrigento) in Sicily, which he had never seen. In 1764 came to light his report on the latest discoveries in Herculaneum - the first serious description of the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum

. Winckelmann famous work of ancient art history (Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums) was completed in 1759, . but not published until 1763 and in 1766 appeared his French edition, . and in 1767 Winckelmann added to it one more volume - Notes on the history of ancient art,
. Full edition, the final version of this work was undertaken by the Vienna Academy in 1776. History Winkelmann contains both systematic and historical sections. Art of Greece and Rome is the focus of Winckelmann, but he is drawn to the monuments and other ancient peoples. In addition to history, among the most important works Winckelmann - two-volume work unpublished antiquities (Monumenti antichi inediti), published in 1767 and dedicated to Cardinal Albani.

From 1763 Winkelman - Antiques & Antiquities president of the Vatican. In 1765 he rejected report from Berlin's offer to become director of libraries, collections of coins and antiquities, but in April 1768 he decided to return to Germany. However, when they reached Munich, he turned back and arrived in Vienna, where Maria Theresa had him a warm reception. In June Winckelmann again crossed the Alps and arrived in Trieste. Here he was robbed and killed a casual companion, which showed Winkelman was with it the gold medal, 8 June 1768.

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