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Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann)

( Austrian philosopher, one of the most influential thinkers of the 20 at.)

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Biography Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann)
Wittgenstein was born in Vienna on April 26, 1889. After several years of study in Berlin, an internship at the University of Manchester (1908), engaged in the design and development of technical devices. In 1911, Wittgenstein began to work intensively on the problems of logic at Cambridge University, together with Bertrand Russell. One of the first findings to results - finding the tautological character of logical truths. In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, Wittgenstein enlisted in the Austrian army. At the front, he continued to ponder the logical and philosophical problems, in 1918, was completed on a book, published under the title Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, 1921; Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 1922).
Treatise in the world is original and significant work. According to one of the main ideas of this work, the world substance is composed of 'simple objects', which, entering into various combinations with each other, form the facts. 'Elementary judgments' consist of 'names', each of which represents a kind of simple object. The combination of names indicates, or 'represents' some possible combination of facilities, in other words - some possible fact. Picture, picture of possible fact is 'thought'. All conceivable possible; denial conceivable also conceivable and possible. Because some possible combination of names shows some possible combination of objects, the logical form of image and logical form of reality are identical to each other.

Thinking is available to sensory perception, as expressed in linguistic judgments. Record all true elementary judgments, we were able to fully describe the world. While the reality in general, can be reprezentirovana in judgments, . no judge can not reprezentirovat the total, . that he should be with reality, . that the judge could reprezentirovat reality, . namely, the logical form of image and reality,
. The logical form can not be described in the judgments, it shows itself in every proposition. So overall, that the need to have in thinking, language and reality, can not be said. Elementary judgments represent the random state of the world that are logically independent of each other and have a possible alternative. Impossible and can not be the expression. Moreover, it can not be said, are objects of logic, ethics, aesthetics, religion and even philosophy.

After the war, Wittgenstein within ten years not studied philosophy. For several years he taught at a provincial school in Lower Austria, then worked as an assistant gardener in the monastery. In 1929, unexpectedly returned to Cambridge and resumed Philosophical Investigations. In 1939, Wittgenstein was the chair of philosophy at Cambridge University, who left in 1947. He continued to study until his death in Cambridge April 29, 1951.

After 1929 Wittgenstein wrote a lot. His main work of this period are the Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen; Philosophical Investigations, publ. posthumously in 1953). Currently, edited and published and also other works of Wittgenstein, . among them - Comments on the foundations of mathematics (Bemerkungen ber die Grundlagen der Mathematik, . 1956; Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, . 1978), . The Blue and Brown Books (The Blue and Brown Books, . 1958), . Philosophical notes (Philosophische Bemerkungen, . 1964; Philosophical Remarks, . 1975), . Notes (Zettel, . 1967) and Miscellaneous Notes (Mixed Remarks, . 1977),
. These books and his lectures and discussions, in which he participated, had a profound influence on modern philosophy. Most of the Treatise fell under the blows of criticism, deposited by Wittgenstein, have been discarded the concept of 'simple objects', 'name', 'elementary propositions', 'analysis' and thought as 'image'. The initial assumption of the Treatise, that there is a certain essence or nature, thinking, language and representation, is now regarded by Wittgenstein as a serious error. There are many different forms of thinking, language and representation, and the unjustified and unrealistic to assume that in these forms embodied a kind of general nature.

Important is also the idea of 'language as a game' (or 'language games'), a certain system of human activity, practice, in which words play a role. Thus, 'thinking' is called a variety of activities and forms that it takes. Therefore, we must abandon the premise that the word 'thinking' means the same thing in various differing contexts. The same is true of other psychological concepts: the 'repetition rule', 'expectations', 'perception', 'implication', 'Memories'. The following excerpt from the Philosophical Investigations provides a good example of 'language games' and Wittgenstein's style of thinking of this period.

'182. Grammar 'fit', 'able' and 'understand'. Assignments: 1) When they say that the cylinder z approaches the hollow cylinder h? Is it only when z is inserted into the h? 2) Sometimes we say that z in such and such a time ceased to approach h. What criteria are used in such cases to determine, . at that time it happened? 3) What is the criterion of weight change at a certain time, . If a body at that time did not lie in the balance? 4) Yesterday, I knew the poem by heart, today I did not know,
. In what kind of cases it makes sense to ask: 'When I stopped him know by heart? " 5) Someone asked me: 'Can you lift this weight? " I say 'Yes'. Then he said to me: 'Pick it up! " - And I can not do. In what kind of circumstances, my words: 'Answering "Yes", I could do it, but now I can not' - could be considered a sufficient justification?

. The criteria that we take for 'fit', 'could', 'understanding', is not as simple as it might seem at first glance
. In other words, the game with these words, their use of language communication, implemented with their assistance, much more complicated - and the role of these words in our language is different - what we tend to think. (That role must be understood to allow the philosophical paradoxes.) "

Wittgenstein observes that in the philosophy of 'always there is a danger to desire to understand the meaning of the expression, contemplating the very expression ... As if the meaning - it is the breath that the word brings to each of its use '. In his writings being tested for many terms that are placed in the confusion of philosophers, such as 'knowledge', 'authenticity' and 'excuse'. Thoroughly describes encountered in everyday life practices and ways of working that meet these terms. We see what is meant by knowledge, credibility, and its justification in these practical situations, and what they mean something else, when changing circumstances. Language should be studied when it works, but not when it is 'resting'.

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