Evariste GALOIS (Galois Evariste)( French mathematician.)
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Biography Evariste GALOIS (Galois Evariste)
Born October 26, 1811 in the town of Bourg-la-Reine, near Paris. In 1823, after a thorough home training under the guidance of mothers enrolled in the fourth grade of the Lyceum Louis le Grand in Paris. His first work on the periodic continued fractions, Galois published in 1828, while still a student of the Lyceum. He intended to enter the Ecole Polytechnique, but twice fell through the entrance exams. He himself explained this by saying that the questions put to him were too childish to respond to them. Finally, in 1830 he was accepted into a normal school, but already in 1831 expelled from it for 'misconduct'. In particular he were accused of his 'intolerable arrogance'. Galois enthusiastically engaged in revolutionary activities, and eventually went to prison, where he stayed for several months. Already in May 1832 his turbulent life came to an end: he was killed in a duel, in which he drew some kind of love story. On the eve of the duel he wrote a summary of their findings and handed a note to one of the friends to report on their leading mathematicians. Note ended with the words: 'You had publicly asked the Jacobi or Gauss to give an opinion about fairness, but about the importance of these theorems. After that, I hope there are people who deem it necessary to decipher all this mess'. It is known, the letter of Galois did not fall either to the Jacobi or Gauss to. Mathematical circles learned about it only in 1846, when most of the Liouville published scientific papers in his journal. They held only 60 pages of small format! And contain a statement of the theory of groups - the key to modern algebra and modern geometry (at this time Cauchy problem only began to publish his work on the theory of groups), the first classification of irrationalities, . defined by algebraic equations, . - Teaching, . which is briefly called Galois theory, problems, . which we now refer to as on Abelian Integrals,
. In Galois theory cleared up such old issues as the trisection of the angle, doubling cube, the solution of cubic and biquadratic equations and all degrees in the radicals. They establish conditions for reducibility of solutions of these equations to the solution of other algebraic equations of lower degrees.
Value of Galois had been fully grasped only through the Treatise on substitutions (Trait des substitutions, 1870) of Jordan and the subsequent work Klein and Lee. Now, combining the Galois approach is recognized as one of the most outstanding achievements of Mathematics 19