HAMILTON, Alexander (Hamilton Alexander)( An outstanding statesman and first U.S. Treasury.)
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Biography HAMILTON, Alexander (Hamilton Alexander)
Born on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies January 11, 1755. Hamilton's father left the family, his mother died when he was 13 years old. To earn a living, he went to work in an office schetovodcheskuyu. In 1772 he moved to America and the following year enrolled at King's College (now Columbia University), where after years of study received a Bachelor of Arts.
In college, he began to write political articles for The New York Journal '. Before he was twenty years old, has published two pamphlet - Full justification of measures taken by Congress in response to accusations by their opponents and answer the farmer, who had been issued, according to the custom of the time, anonymous. It was a polemical response to the very popular article S. Seabury, published under the pseudonym 'uestchestersky farmer'. Pamphlets Hamilton, appeared in the critical years for the country (1774-1775), containing a vigorous defense of the American colonies from the claims of Great Britain, have become an important contribution to the literature of the American Revolution. These pamphlets are based on a clear knowledge of the principles of the Constitution of Great Britain and differing severity and logical reasoning, identified the best features of the Hamilton-polemicist and made a strong impression on his contemporaries.
At the beginning of the war with Britain, he formed an artillery company and became its captain. Soon attracted the attention of General N. Green, who introduced him Dzh.Vashingtonu, Chief of the U.S. Army. In March 1777, Washington, on which was impressed by the personal qualities of the young officer, appointed him as his adjutant with the rank of lieutenant. Knowledge of French language and literary skills of the new adjutant of exceptional value for Washington, and Hamilton remained in that position for about four years. Participated in the siege of Yorktown in 1781, on the orders of Washington led an assault group.
After the war, Hamilton took up legal practice in New York, but could not remain aloof from politics. As a member of the Continental Congress in 1782-1783 convinced of his inefficiency and became an energetic supporter of the National Union and a strong central government. There was also a party to no avail ended Annapolis convention 1786, a year later by one of three delegates from New York to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. If Hamilton and has not made a significant contribution to the creation of the federal constitution, it is reimbursed it is protected in the press and in the ratification convention in New York. He began to defend the constitution, despite the critical attitude to it, for two reasons. First, he had to, though reluctantly, to acknowledge that there is nothing better in the circumstances, none of this. Another reason was the fear that if the constitution is rejected, the country faces, as he himself put it, an even greater 'division, anarchy and suffering'. Two weeks after the signing of the Constitution, Hamilton published in the New York 'Independent' Journal 'on October 2, 1787 his first article in its defense. Other articles published there and in other New York newspapers before April 1788, . when they, . including fourteen (? 10, . 14 and 37-48), . written Dzh.Medisonom, . and five (? 2-5 and 64), . written Dzh.Dzheem, . were published in a volume entitled The Federalist,
Of the 85 notes in the Federalist Hamilton personally owns a 51 (? 1, 6-9, 11-13,15-17, 21-36, 59-61 and 65-85) and three (? 18-20), written jointly with Madison. Authorship of the twelve notes (? 49-58, 62 and 63) is not established, but they were written by either Hamilton or Madison. In any case, the bulk of the text belongs to the Federalist Hamilton, who can be considered the author of Labor, recognized classic in political science and reproduced in numerous subsequent editions and translations.
Hamilton played a decisive role in the ratification of the Constitution of the State of New York at the convention in Poughkeepsie in June 1788. About two thirds of the convention delegates were opposed to the constitution. Ratification seemed a hopeless task, but Hamilton, having shown exceptional oratory, managed to change their mind about a dozen delegates. The final outcome of the vote was in favor of ratification with the slight advantage: Thirty 'for' and twenty-seven 'against'.
The Federal Constitution came into force after the inauguration of President Washington in April 1789. 34-year-old Hamilton took the offer to become minister of finance, because, as expressed in a letter dated May 2, 1797, 'felt obliged to assist in the launch mechanism of governmental power'. He remained in that post (which is considered, to the displeasure of the Secretary of State Jefferson and other members of the government as a sort of premiership) over five years, resigned in January 1795.
Hamilton eliminated prevailed at the time the currency chaos, has established the dollar as the basic monetary unit and secured the gold coinage and silver dollars in the ratio 15:1, changed in 1834 to 16:1. He persuaded Congress to assume responsibility for the payment of debts as a state that had accumulated over the years of war and the debts of the Confederation. Their total amount was rather high and amounted to approximately. 75 million. dollars, but, as stressed by the Minister of Finance to report to Congress on Jan. 14, 1790, it must pay in order to ensure confidence in the new U.S. government. Hamilton founded the central bank - both for the storage of deposits and for loans. This is the first bank opened in 1791, having an initial capital of 10 million. dollars, and enjoyed such great success that his tickets were walking on par, and the dividend rate was 8%. For twenty years, until the expiration of its charter in 1811, First Bank of the United States, as predicted by Hamilton, served as the financial base of the booming economy. In his famous report on industrial goods on Dec. 5, 1791 Finance Minister proposed to set tariffs on imports, . designed primarily to protect the U.S. industry is young, he was convinced, . that the 'American empire' will achieve the power and prosperity rather as an industrial, . than agrarian economic system,
. But this part of his program was not adopted by Congress.
After resigning as finance minister, he returned to New York and devoted himself to the family, which has already has seven children, and a successful legal practice. Its only public activity in those years, in addition to assisting in the drafting of Dzh.Vashingtonu his farewell message (1796), was in the Army in 1798 with the rank of Major General during the undeclared war with France.
Presidential elections in November 1800 ended in a tie between Jefferson and Barry, and the decision outcome of the elections was referred to the House of Representatives - a situation that evoked the horror of Hamilton. For him it was a choice of two evils - between the 'demagogic' Jefferson and 'despicable' Barry, 'disease' and 'poison' of democracy. Hamilton disliked Jefferson for political reasons as for Barry, then to him he had a personal grudge, and so deep that he could write a private letter in 1792: 'I consider it my religious duty to prevent his career'. The election of the president of Barry, he said, 'disgrace to our country', and in 1800-1801 he used all his influence to prevent this. 'For God's sake - he appealed in a letter (December 22, 1800) - do not make the federalist party responsible for the rise of this man! " Thus, willy-nilly, Hamilton helped elect Jefferson. But the victory of Democrat-Republican for him was a tragedy. In June 1804 Vice-President A. Burr, who was informed of the disparaging remarks of Hamilton in his address, demanded an explanation or a public apology. Hamilton, in a state of deep despair, and obviously not capable of apology, Barry took up the challenge to a duel. It took place early in the morning July 11, 1804 on the banks of the Hudson River in Uihokene (pc. New Jersey). Hamilton shot and killed, and it destroyed the career of Barry.