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Edinburgh, William (Harvey William)

( English naturalist and physician.)

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Biography Edinburgh, William (Harvey William)
Born April 1, 1578 in Folkestone (Kent). In 1588 entered the Royal School in Canterbury, where he studied Latin. In May of 1593 was adopted in the Keys College, Cambridge, in the same year received a scholarship in medicine, established in 1572 by Archbishop of Canterbury. The first three years of study devoted to the study of Harvey 'disciplines, useful for the doctor' - the classical languages (Latin and Greek), rhetoric, philosophy and mathematics. He was particularly interested in philosophy, of all subsequent works of William Harvey shows that a great influence on his development as a scientist had a natural philosophy of Aristotle. Next three years, Harvey studied the discipline directly related to medicine. While in Cambridge this study was reduced mostly to reading and discussing works of Hippocrates, Galen and other ancient authors. Sometimes anatomical demonstrations were organized; science teachers had to do it every winter, and Keyes College had permission to hold twice a year autopsies of executed criminals. In 1597 Harvey received the title of bachelor, and in October 1599 left Cambridge.
The exact date of his first visit to Padua is unknown, but in 1600 he already held an elective office 'elders' - the representative of British students at the University of Padua. Medical School in Padua was at that time fame. Anatomical studies have prospered thanks Dzh.Fabritsiyu of Akvapendente, who held first chair of surgery, and then the Department of Anatomy and Embryology. Fabricius was a disciple and follower of G. Fallopian.

When Garvey arrived in Padua, Fabricius was an elderly man, most of his works were written, although not all were published. The most significant of his essay, On the venous valves (De venarum osteolis), was published in the first year of William Harvey at Padua, but Fabrice students demonstrated these valves are in 1578. Although the scientist himself has shown that their entrances are always open in the direction of the heart, he saw in this fact due to circulatory. Composing Fabrice had an undeniable influence on Harvey, as his book on the ripe fruit (De formato foetu, 1604) and the development of eggs and chicken (De formatione ovi et pulli, 1619).

April 25, 1602 Harvey completed education, received his medical degree and returned to London. The degree was recognized by University of Cambridge, but that does not mean that he can practice medicine. The license was granted the College of Physicians, where Harvey and asked in 1603. He had exams in the spring of that year, and 'as satisfactorily answered all the questions', he was admitted to practice before the next exam, which was held a year. Harvey appeared as three times before the examiners and October 5, 1604 was admitted to the Bar. In 1607 became a full member of the College of Physicians, and two years later applied for admission to a doctor in the hospital Sv. Bartholomew. Work in this hospital was considered a very prestigious for a medical practitioner, so Harvey has reinforced its request letter from the President and other Board members and even the king himself. Hospital management agreed to take him to the post as soon as the freed space. October 14, 1609 Harvey was officially joined the staff. His duties included visiting the hospital at least two times a week, examination of patients and prescribing. Sometimes patients were sent to his house. For twenty years, Harvey served as a hospital doctor despite the fact that his private practice in London steadily increased. In addition, he worked in the College of Physicians and conducted their own pilot studies.

In 1613 Harvey was elected as the caretaker of the College of Physicians, and two years later became a lecturer Lamlianskih readings. These readings were established in 1581 by Lord Lumley to improve the level of medical education in London. At that time, all education was reduced to the presence in the public autopsies of executed criminals, who four times a year staged College of Physicians and the Society of barbers and surgeons. At Lamlianskih readings lecturer had to read hour lecture twice a week throughout the year to six years, students completed a full course of anatomy, surgery and medicine. Harvey performed this duty for forty-one. At the same time he lectured on anatomy at the College, the manuscript of his notes for the lectures of 16, 17 and 18 April 1616 under the name of abstracts for the lectures on general anatomy (Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis) is stored in the British Museum.

In 1628 in Frankfurt was William Harvey published his anatomical study of the motion of the heart and blood of animals (Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus). In it he first formulated his theory of circulation and resulted in experimental evidence in its favor. Measuring the magnitude of the systolic volume, . frequency of contractions of the heart and the total amount of blood in the body of the sheep, . Harvey proved, . that 2 minutes all the blood must pass through the heart, . and within 30 minutes after it passes the amount of blood, . equal to the weight of the animal,
. It followed that, contrary to Galen on the flow to the heart of more and more units of blood from producing its organs, blood returns to the heart of the closed-loop. Closed loop provide the same tiny tubes - capillaries that connect arteries and veins.

In early 1631 Harvey became physician-in-a physician of King Charles I. Intrigued by research Harvey, Charles placed at his disposal the royal hunting grounds in Windsor and Hampton Court for experiments. In May 1633 Harvey accompanied Charles I during his visit to Scotland. Perhaps it was during the stay of the court in Edinburgh Harvey visited the Bass Rock, a place of nesting cormorants and other wild birds. At that time he was interested in the problem of embryonic development of birds and mammals.

After the battle of Edgehill in 1642 during the civil war in England Harvey followed the King in Oxford. Here he resumed his medical practice and continued observation and experiments. In 1645 the King appointed Dean Harvey Merton College. In June 1646 Oxford was besieged and taken by supporters of Cromwell, and Harvey returned to London. On employment and circumstances of life in the next few years, little is known. In 1646 Harvey published in Cambridge, two anatomical sketch Studies circulation (Exercitationes duae de circulatione sanguinis), . and in 1651 his second fundamental work - study on the origin of animals (Exercitationes de generatione animalium),
. It summarizes the results of years of research Harvey on embryonic development of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, has been formulated the theory of epigenesis. Harvey argued that the egg is a common first principle of all animals and all living things come from eggs. Studies on the embryology Harvey served as a powerful stimulus to the development of theoretical and practical midwifery.

In 1654 Harvey was living in his brother's house in London or in the suburbs Rohampton. He was elected president of the College of Physicians, however, declined the post of honor, citing his advanced age. Garvey died in London on June 3, 1657.

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