Pierre Gassendi (Gassendi Pierre)( The French philosopher and scientist)
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Biography Pierre Gassendi (Gassendi Pierre)
(1592-1655) Known for his advocacy Epicureanism and atomism and attempt to reconcile them with Christianity.
Born Shanterse near Dinh Provence January 22, 1592. Name Gassendi - Italian form of olive names Gassendi (Gassend). He held minor ecclesiastical position in 1612, in 1614 he became a doctor of theology at Avignon, was also rector of the cathedral in Dina. At the insistence of Mersenne engaged in philosophy, was a professor of philosophy at the College of Aix-en-Provence
. In 1624 published in Grenoble, a number of essays entitled Paradoxical Exercises Against the Aristotelians (Exercitationes paradoxicae adversus Aristoteleos), . where stated, . what, . although he is obliged by his position to teach Aristotelian philosophy, . it has always been the question of its weaknesses,
. Having stopped the debate with scholastics, because of which his enemies might appear in church circles, he turned to the study of Epicurus. In 1626 Gassendi in the idea of working life, moral beliefs and teachings of Epicurus. He was convinced that the teachings of the ancient philosopher can be reconciled with contemporary theology. In 1632 Gassendi published work on the passage of the planet Mercury, predicted by Kepler, and in 1641 tried to experimentally prove the theory of falling bodies Galileo. However, the main contribution to Gassendi in the history of culture was his philosophy.
In 1641 Gassendi gave in response to the thoughts of Descartes number of objections, the essence of which was that speculation should be more modest. In 1644 his book Research metaphysics (Disquisitio Metaphysica). In 1645 Gassendi received the position of professor of mathematics (astronomy) Collц╗ge Royal in Paris. Lecture at induction (Institutio astronomica, 1647), although openly and not to show commitment to the ideas of Galileo, showed sympathy for them. In 1647 appeared his work on the life and moral views of Epicurus (De vita et moribus Epicuri), changed the general opinion of epikurovskoy Ethics. In 1648, suffering from tuberculosis, Gassendi went to Provence. In 1649 he published Observations on the tenth book of Diogenes Laertsiya (Animadversiones in decimum librum Diogenis Laertii) (about Epicurus), together with the Body of the philosophy of Epicurus (Syntagma philosophiae Epicuri). In 1653 he returned to Paris. Died Gassendi in Paris on October 24, 1655.
His complete works was published in 1658. The first two volumes contain the Body of Philosophy (Syntagma Philosophicum, publ. posthumously in 1658), consisting of three parts: logic, physics (general science, cosmology, physiology, psychology) and ethics. Logic - mainly inductive method of research, but it Gassendi attempts to strike a balance between experience and reason. Physics is devoted to describing the world (made up of atoms and void), created by God, whose existence is proved by the presence of world harmony. God - the first reason, all secondary causes relate to the movement, inherent in the atoms. Most mobile atoms are the souls of animals capable of feeling and 'sensitive intelligence'. The human soul is immaterial and can comprehend abstract ideas, based on sensory data. People tend to happiness (peace of mind and lack of physical suffering), which can be achieved (in this world - only in imperfect form) through a virtuous life and love of God.
Gassendi respected the orthodox church teachings, but the essential features of his world view have been adopted by deism 18. He was the chief rival of Descartes as a representative of the 'new philosophy', influenced Boyle and John Locke, his most revered I. Newton.