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Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauss Carl Friedrich)

( German mathematician, astronomer and physicist.)

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Biography Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauss Carl Friedrich)
Born April 30, 1777 in Braunschweig. In 1788, with the support of the Duke of Brunswick, Gauss entered the closed school Karolinum College, and then to the University of Gottingen, where he studied from 1795 to 1798. In 1796 Gauss managed to solve the problem, not evade geometers since Euclid: he found a way for you to build with the help of a compass and straightedge regular 17-gon. In most of Gauss, this result has made such a strong impression that he decided to devote himself to the study of mathematics, rather than the classical languages, as originally envisaged. In 1799 he defended his doctoral dissertation at the University of Helmstadt, which first gave a rigorous proof of a so-called. the fundamental theorem of algebra, and in 1801 published a famous arithmetic research (Disquisitiones arithmeticae), considered the beginning of the modern theory of numbers. Central to the book takes the theory of quadratic forms, deductions and comparisons of the second degree, and the supreme achievement is the law of quadratic reciprocity - 'the golden theorem', the first complete proof of which led Gauss.
In January 1801 astronomer Dzh.Pyatstsi, amounting star catalog, discovered an unknown star of 8-th magnitude. He managed to trace its path only for the arc 9 ° (1 / 40 orbit), . and there was a problem of determining the complete elliptical trajectory of the body of available data, . the more interesting, . what, . apparently, . in fact it was the long-anticipated between Mars and Jupiter small planet,
. In September 1801 the calculation of the orbit engaged Gauss, . November computations were completed, . in December, published the results, . on the night of December 31st of January 1, the famous German astronomer Wilhelm Olbers, . using data Gauss, . found a planet (it was called Ceres),
. In March 1802 was opened on another similar planet - Pallas, and Gauss immediately compute its orbit. His methods of calculating the orbits he outlined in his famous theory of motion of celestial bodies (Theoria motus corporum coelestium, 1809). The book describes the used of the least squares method, and to this day remains one of the most common methods of data processing.

In 1807, Gauss chair of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Göttingen, was promoted to director of Göttingen observatory. In subsequent years, worked on the theory of hypergeometric series (the first systematic study of the convergence of the series), mechanical quadrature, secular perturbations of planetary orbits, differential geometry.

In 1818-1848 in the center of scientific interest Gauss was Geodesy. He spent as practical work (surveying and drawing up a detailed map of the kingdom of Hanover, the measurement of the meridian arc Göttingen - Altona undertaken to determine the true compression of the Earth), and theoretical studies. They laid the foundations of higher geodesy and created the theory of a so-called. intrinsic geometry of surfaces. In 1828 came out of basic geometric treatise Gauss General studies on curved surfaces (Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas). In it, in particular, referred to the surface of revolution of constant negative curvature, the internal geometry which, as later revealed, is the geometry of Lobachevskii.

Research in the field of physics, that Gauss studied since the early 1830's, belong to different sections of the science. In 1832 he created a system of absolute measures, introducing three main units: 1 sec, 1 mm and 1 kg. In 1833, together with Weber built the first electromagnetic telegraph in Germany, . have linked the observatory and Physics Institute in Göttingen, . performed most experimental work on terrestrial magnetism, . unipolar invented a magnetometer, . then bifilar (also in conjunction with W. Weber), . created the foundations of the theory building, . in particular, formulated the fundamental theorem of electrostatics (Gauss theorem - Ostrogradskii),
. In 1840 developed the theory of imaging in complex optical systems. In 1835, a magnetic observatory at Göttingen observatory.

In 1845 the University commissioned Gauss reorganize Support Fund for widows and children of professors. Gauss not only perfectly accomplished the task, but along the way made an important contribution to the theory of insurance. July 16, 1849 Gottingen University celebrated the golden jubilee of the dissertation Gauss. In the commemorative lecture scientist returned to the topic of his thesis, proposing a fourth proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Gauss died in Göttingen on Feb. 23, 1855.

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