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Nathaniel Hawthorne (Hawthorne Nathaniel)

( American novelist.)

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Biography Nathaniel Hawthorne (Hawthorne Nathaniel)


Born July 4, 1804 in Salem (pc. Mass.). In his youth Hawthorne carried away by his family history. His ancestor, William Hawthorne, arrived from England on the ship "Arabella" in 1630 and soon took a high position in Salem. Judge John Hawthorne has participated in the trials of seylemskimi witches (1692), and one of the convicted cursed him and all his descendants. Later, Hawthorne used this episode in his novel The House of seven gables.

Both before and after graduating from college, Bowden, he read a lot on the history of Pioneer America, for life saving interest in the psychology of Puritanism and making heroes of many a first-Puritan settlers, or people with Puritan roots. Often the theme of his works the struggle became limited Puritan philosophy and human impulses. The problem of sin has become a leading theme in the Scarlet Letter (The Scarlet Letter), the House of seven gables (The House of the Seven Gables), the Marble Faun (The Marble Faun) and a black veil priest (The Minister's Black Veil).

After college, the next 12 years, Hawthorne spent at home, writing stories, which are printed in calendars, magazines and newspapers. The situations, characters and descriptions of places he drew from the summer trips to New England.

Later, all the things written have been collected and published in the book tells the story twice (Twice-Told Tales, 1837). Best known stories defender Gray (The Gray Champion), meek boy (The Gentle Boy), The Great Carbuncle (The Great Carbuncle) and experiment Dr. Heydeggera (Dr. Heidegger's Experiment). In the latter story, and some others, included in 1842 in continuation of Double-tell a story which reflected the interest in Hawthorne's allegory.

In the house of HW Longfellow Hawthorne met the future president of Harvard University, K. Felton, and the poet and critic Dzh.R.Louellom, and through the Peabody sisters, Sophia and Elizabeth in 1837, became friends with Robert W. Emerson, Thoreau, and Margaret G. Fuller. Deciding to marry Sophia, he found a regular salary. During these years he founded a series of children's books on the history of the settlement of America, which published the Elizabeth Peabody.

In 1841, Hawthorne lost his job at the customs. On the advice of Sophia Peabody, an ardent supporter of the movement transcendentalists, Hawthorne joined the community 'Brook Farm' and put it all their savings. He hoped to find a place where I was able to start a family, but a few months found that constant communication with people he does not fit, and left the community.

After marriage in 1842, Nathaniel and Sophia for three years moved to Concord. There Hawthorne spent the happiest years of his life, there were written accounts that are included in the collection of legends of the old homestead (Mosses from an Old Manse, 1846). After the birth of their first child Hawthorne settled customs inspector at seylemskuyu. Four years later, for which Hawthorne did not write anything as a result of the intrigues of local politicians, he was dismissed.

The next two and a half years of his work booming. He received recognition as an outstanding American writer and author of the most profound psychological novel, created in America - The Scarlet Letter (1850). With no less enthusiasm were met by his subsequent works - House of seven gables (1851), . A novel about Blaytdeyle (The Blithedale Romance, . 1852), . material for which was the residence in the community of Hawthorne's Brook Farm, . collection of short stories The Snow Maiden and other double-narrated stories (The Snow Image and Other Tales, . 1851), . two collections for children - have become a classic book of miracles (A Wonder Book, . 1852) and Tanglewood stories (Tanglewood Tales, . 1853),

Literary success has brought financial independence, and after a year and a half in Lenox in western Massachusetts (1850-1851), Hawthorne bought the house in B. Olcott Concord, where he moved in the spring of 1852.

In gratitude for participation in the presidential campaign Fr.Pirsa, a former classmate, whose biography of Hawthorne wrote in 1852, he was offered the post of consul in Liverpool, and in 1853 he made his first trip abroad. Away from home, he created only one work - the novel The Marble Faun (1860), with typical gotornovskimi heroes and lots of detailed and original description of a sample of Italian art.

In 1861 Hawthorne returned home with the family. In the last years of his life he published a collection of essays Our old native land (Our Old Home, 1863), which reflected his impressions of England, and worked on four have not finished novels, published after his death. Hawthorne died in Plymouth on May 15, 1864.

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