August Wilhelm von Hofmann (Hofmann August Wilhelm von)( German chemist.)
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Biography August Wilhelm von Hofmann (Hofmann August Wilhelm von)
Born in Gieц÷en April 8, 1818. Graduated Gisensky University, where his teacher was Yu Liebig. After receiving a doctorate in chemistry, became assistant to Liebig (1843), Assistant Professor, University of Bonn (1845). Since 1845 and the next 20 years, Hoffman - Director of chemical King's College London. In 1865 he headed the department of chemistry at the University of Berlin and held this position until the end of life. In 1868 he founded the German Chemical Society, 14 times elected its president, began to publish a famous magazine of the society (Berichte), still is the most authoritative periodical.
The central theme of research of Hoffmann - amines and their synthesis. In 1843, scientists have shown, . that products, . obtained at different times Unferdorbenom (1826), . Runge (1837), . Fritzsche (1841), . Zina (1842) with the distillation of coal tar and considered different substances, . in fact constitute one and the same compound, . he followed Fritzsche called aniline,
. In 1850, showed that by heating ethyl iodide with ammonia, amines are formed. In 1881 the suggested method for primary amines from amides of carboxylic acids (reaction of Hoffmann). In 1856 the laboratory of Hoffmann by his student William Perkin was the first aniline dye - Mauveine. Sam Hoffman synthesized aniline dye, red (magenta), formaldehyde, hydrazobenzene, isonitrile. Hoffman, one of the first countries to recognize and put into educational practice the new system of atomic weights, . put forward by S. Cannizzaro and based on the hypothesis that A. Avogadro, . proposed progressive innovations in the nomenclature of organic compounds, . true, . have been widely recognized only after the adoption of the Geneva nomenclature,
. Developed many examples of chemical experiments, which are still in use. His introduction to modern chemistry (Einleitung in die moderne Chemie, 1865) was one of the most popular scientific manuals of the time, easily Hoffman on the history of science can not study in its entirety the history of chemistry 15-19 cc. Exceptional value are three-volume memoirs of Hoffman's memory of departed friends (Zur Erinnerung an vorangegangen Freude, 1883). In 1888 the scientist was awarded the noble title.
Hoffmann died in Berlin on May 2, 1892.