GU YANU( Chinese Confucian philosopher)
Comments for GU YANU
Biography GU YANU
. Illuminator-patriot and scholar and lexicographer (philologist, . Historian, . geographer, . Economist, . astronomer), . marked the beginning empirical-critical direction - Pu Xue ( 'doctrine of the Nature', . 'specific learning') in the ideology of the reign of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911),
. Born July 15, 1613 in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. Place of the noble educated family, actively fought against the Manchu conquerors and after their victory (1644) in protest took Yanu nickname - 'The fierce warrior'. Renounced a career in the Manchu rule, twice in prison (1655, 1668). Died Feb. 15, 1682 in Tsyuyvo Shanxi Province. Ideological legacy Gu Yanu concluded mainly in two collections raznotemnyh works: A collection of prose [Gu] Tinlinya (Tinlin wen ji) and your daily knowledge (chih Zhi Lu)
. China's inability to resist the foreigners Gu Yanu explained viciousness dominant ideology - Neo-Confucianism, . especially subjective exercise Wang Yangming (blue syue1), . which qualify it as a camouflaged under Confucianism, Zen Buddhism,
. In contrast, the Ku Yanu advocated the study and restoration of 'genuine' Confucianism ( 'teachings sovershennomudryh' - Shen Xue) in the ancient orthodox interpretation, elaborated in the era of the Han (206 BC. - 220 AD). Therefore generated Gu Yanu ideological direction became known as 'Han learning' (Han Xue). For his development of the fundamental importance was the introduction of Ku Yanu new, higher standards of accuracy and usefulness of knowledge. The need for empirical validity and practical applicability of knowledge in general ontological terms Gu Yanu deduced from the fact that 'Tao is no place for guns away (tsi2)', ie. beyond the specific phenomena of reality. 'Path-teaching (dao) sovershennomudryh' he defined the two formulas of Confucius: 'expanding knowledge of culture (wen)' and 'maintaining a sense of shame in their actions' (Analects, VI, 25, XII, 15, XIII, 20), - thus bringing epistemology with ethics. In contrast, Huang Tszunsi in the dilemma of 'laws, or people' Gu Yanu determining believed the human factor: the abundance of legal norms detrimental, because obscures morality. 'Redressing the hearts and improvement of morals' can be achieved through the free expression of public opinion - 'upright discussions' (ching s). Gu Yanu believed that in the period from 8 to. BC. 17 in. best state of morals was in the era of the Eastern Han (25-220), especially during the reign of its founder, Guan-di (25-57).
Instead of the traditional concept of political power, associates and the officials of the emperor as "the body and the members' Gu Yanu suggested that the doctrine of government as a whole depends on its parts: the officials shared power (quan) with the Son of Heaven, ie. Emperor (Zhi zhi lu, chapter. 7), private interests should not eradicated, but used for the common good. The basis of all social and political structure, he believed interpersonal, especially kinship relations. Approached the differentiation of society (the Celestial Empire) and the State. The loss of the state - a change of dynasty, the death of the Middle Kingdom - the loss of moral standards to such an extent that 'people are ready to devour each other' (the words of Mencius). Revising the formula of the Confucian canon Xue Yes, the ability to save Celestial Gu Yanu considered the guarantor of the ability to streamline the state. In the socio-economic sphere was for the Confucian antimerkantilizma: enriching people raises a claim to power. He offered to give up paper - 'imaginary' - money. The main goal of enhancing the value of money (with an increase in their turnover), to reduce fluctuations in market prices, etc.. considered not economic prosperity, and social and political stability.