Alexander von Humboldt (Humboldt Alexander)( German naturalist and geographer.)
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Biography Alexander von Humboldt (Humboldt Alexander)
Born September 14, 1769 in Berlin. In 1787 entered the University in Frankfurt an der Oder, intending to become a government official, but soon became interested in natural sciences. In 1789-1790 undertook a trip to the Rhine Valley and France. In 1790-1791 Humboldt studied at the Hamburg Trade Academy, then in Freiburg Mining Academy, where in 1792 received a diploma of mining engineer. In 1792-1795 he served in the mining department, while engaged in botany, mineralogy, chemistry. In 1799-1804 traveled to Central and South America. In 1807-1834 work out in Humboldt Travel equinoctial region of the New World in 1799-1804 (Voyage aux rgions quinoxiales du Nouveau continent), . and in 1808 - paintings of nature, . equipped with scientific comments (Ansichten der Natur, . mit wissenschaftlichen Erluterungen; rus,
. translated 1959), which were first formulated the idea of the close relationship between climate and the nature of vegetation.
In 1827, lectured at the Humboldt University of Berlin. In 1829 he traveled to Russia - Urals, Altai, the Caspian Sea and the Caspian Sea Areas. The outcome of the expedition was a three-volume work of Central Asia (Asie Centrale, 1843). In 1845 he published a work of Space: a plan describing the physical world (Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung).
Humboldt research interests were unusually varied. His main task, he felt 'comprehension of nature as a whole and to collect evidence of the interaction of natural forces'. Based on the general principles and applying the comparative method, he created such disciplines as physical geography, landscape management, plant geography. Paid great attention to addressing climate change, developed a method of isotherms, drew a map of their distribution and actually gave the rationale of climatology as a science. Described in detail the continental and coastal climate, has established the nature of their differences. Joint work with Zh.Gey-Lussac's work on gases has made a significant contribution to the development of ideas about atoms and molecules. Through research Humboldt laid the scientific foundations of geomagnetism.
Humboldt died in Berlin on May 6, 1859.