HUS Yang (Hus Jan)( Czech religious reformer.)
Comments for HUS Yang (Hus Jan)
Biography HUS Yang (Hus Jan)
Born in the village Gusinets (Czech Republic) in a peasant family. In 1393 he graduated from the University of Prague, where in 1396 received a Master of Liberal Arts, in 1401-1402 was the dean of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, and in 1402-1403 and 1409-1410 - Rector of the University. In 1402 he was appointed rector and preacher of the Bethlehem Chapel in the old part of Prague, where he was mainly preaching to the Czech language.
While still a student Gus came under the influence of prominent reformist movement (in particular, Jan Milic and Matthew of Janow), which originated in the Czech Republic to the end of his reign (1346-1378) of Emperor Charles IV and was very noticeable to 1400. Gus joined this movement and became an ardent supporter of his. His role in the disputes and controversies concerning church reform was so significant that in the near future Gus has become a recognized leader of the pro-reform. The urgent need to conduct recognized by all, but opinions on its depth and means of dispersing. Initially, between advocates of reform and ecclesiastical authorities had no disagreement, and they often work together. In some cases, the archbishop of Prague invited Hus sermons speak to a gathering of clerics and make suggestions about how to heal the wounds, struck the church and society. But when in addition to their own ideas of Hus began to preach the teachings of John Wycliffe, the highest ecclesiastical authorities turned away from him. Curia, derived from exposing themselves Hus issued against him in 1410 the bull, the archbishop of Prague at the same time ordered the burning of books Wycliffe and put the church ban on Huss and his followers. Earlier everywhere except churches were banned sermons (this measure was clearly directed against the Bethlehem Chapel). In 1411 the same archbishop solemnly proclaimed the church ban against Huss and threatened all the localities which it ukroyut, interdict (denial of the right to conduct services). In 1412 in Prague papal emissaries were sent to collect money (through the sale of indulgences), which are intended to be declared by Pope John XXIII crusade against the King of Naples Vladislav. Sermons Hus and his followers against indulgences and the ensuing folk performances were the last straw. New message further strengthened the church ban and threatened suspension of worship in Prague. Then Gus settled in the castles of his followers near Prague. In October 1414, he relied on the word of the Emperor Sigismund, who guaranteed his safety and gave accompany Czech nobles, went to the Council of Constance, hoping that he will be able to justify their teachings and activities. But soon after arriving in Constance Gus was taken into custody. Held three meetings at which Gus was trying to say that many of the charges against him were untrue and he does not assert (as he did not share the teachings of Wycliffe TN. 'remanentsii', ie. preserving the essence of the bread and wine in the Eucharist in the same condition), . others were distorted (so, . allegedly, . Gus said that the inability of the clergy, . find in mortal sins, . perform sacraments, . but lowered an important addition: 'properly'),
. The practice of the laity and same communion bread and wine, but not by bread alone, has not yet been finalized, at the level of the official teachings of the church, rejected and condemned. The proposal put forward in his treatise on church doctrine about Christ as the head of the church and that church is 'the set of selected' could also be declared heretical only with a very biased review. Gus offered to renounce his teachings, and it would have saved his life, but he replied that he could not renounce something that does not alleged. Then he, as an incorrigible heretic, sentenced to be burned alive at the stake, which was done here, in Constanta, July 6, 1415. The news of his execution and the treachery of the emperor caused uproar in the Czech Republic and a new upsurge of national feelings. 452 representative of the highest nobility, assembled in Prague in early September 1415, signed a protest, which was sent to the cathedral. That was the prologue of the Hussite wars and the beginning of the centuries-long struggle of the Czech religious and political freedom.
Literary work Hus flowed parallel to the struggle for their views. Turning to the academic community and the laity, he used both Latin and Czech language. The most notable contribution to the protection of Hus reforms was the book about the Church (De Ecclesia, 1413). Proceedings of Hus in the Czech language - a remarkable literary supplement to his sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel. Their number has grown considerably during his voluntary exile, they were designed as followers of Jan Hus in Prague, and his new supporters across the country. The series of papers in the Czech language, in which Gus wanted to highlight the complex problems or to explain fundamental principles of Christian doctrine, are preceded by short essays on issues of common interest. His work explanations of faith, the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer contains a description of thin theological issues in an accessible understanding of people's level. An important place should be given a collection of sermons Czech Postilla, as well as a brilliant description of the principles of the Christian's daughter, or true knowledge about the true prayer, which is devoted to pious women, members of the congregation of Jan Hus.