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John Dewey (Dewey John)

( The American philosopher, psychologist and educator, one of the leading representatives of pragmatism, which has had a strong influence on educational thought of the United States.)

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Biography John Dewey (Dewey John)
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He was born near Burlington (pc. Vermont), October 20, 1859. So far we know little about his ancestors, . but known, . that the first Dewey, . settled in America, . had three sons, . among the descendants of one of them was John Dewey, . another - Governor Thomas Dewey, . and the third - Admiral George Dewey, . became famous for the battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War of 1898,
. Three generations of Dewey were farmers, his father was engaged in trade. Dewey was educated at Burlington High School, graduated from the University of Vermont, then two years taught school in Pennsylvania, during the year was a teacher rural school in his home state. In 1882 he enrolled at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore,. Here he experienced the influence of George Sylvester Morris, a visiting professor from the University of Michigan, the representative of the American neo-Hegelianism. In 1884 received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University, presenting a thesis, which was devoted to an aspect of psychological theory of Kant
. In the autumn of that year, Dewey began to teach philosophy at the University of Michigan and remained there (except for a brief period teaching at the University of Minnesota in 1888-1889) until 1894, . when he was offered the post of professor and dean of the Faculty of Philosophy, . psychology and pedagogy, University of Chicago,
. It was in Chicago, Dewey shifted from abstract problems of traditional metaphysics and epistemology to the more practical and specific problems of philosophy, psychology and pedagogy. By 1903 a so-called. Chicago School of instrumentalism was flourishing, and pedagogical experiments, begun in 1896 based Dewey 'schools laboratories', were to have a notable impact on educational theory and practice in the U.S.. Since 1904, Dewey taught at Columbia University and remained there until his retirement in 1930, later served as an Honorary Professor of the University. During this period he wrote many works: in logic, epistemology, psychology, pedagogy, social philosophy, art history, religion. As a famous philosopher and educator, he was invited to China, Japan, Turkey, Mexico, USSR. Dewey held an active social position and participated in numerous committees and movements of the liberal orientation. Dewey died in New York on June 1, 1952.

Dewey's early works were published, when he worked at Johns Hopkins University. These are two articles in the 'Journal of Speculative Philosophy' ( 'Journal of Speculative Philosophy'), which was published in St. Louis (pc. Missouri), edited by William T. Harris and devoted to the study and dissemination of Hegelian ideas. Dewey was never an orthodox Hegelian, but the thought of Hegel outstanding thinker. After becoming acquainted with the works of Hegel's own work seemed to him merely 'intellectual exercise'. Dewey's departure from Hegelianism began when he realized that the system of Hegel is a mere formality, 'highly artificial' nature. However, he continued to believe that 'in Hegel more thought content and the ability to penetrate into the essence of things than in any other systematic philosophy', including Plato.

Dewey never ceased to engage the topic of democracy. In 1888, Michigan State University has published his work ethics of democracy (The Ethics of Democracy). In 1946 in the 'Introduction' to his book Human Problems (Problems of Men), he just talks about his faith in the democratic way of life, . finds new meanings in the concept of democracy and new methods of persuasion readers in need of scientific study of man in the social environment, . this study the nature of the natural sciences,
. Democracy for him is not 'sliced sovereignty', but super-partnership activities and will. It is not easy - and not primarily - a form of government, but a sensible, realistic co-operation with a view to establishing full-fledged personalities. No wonder that, as he himself admitted, his philosophy has been most fully represented in the work Democracy and Education (Democracy and Education, 1916). Democracy and 'education for democracy, Dewey considered the most important problems in the study which found a natural application and' other issues - the cosmological, moral, logical '. He called Emerson "a philosopher of democracy ', but this characteristic is more suitable to himself, as his words that Emerson was" a prophet and herald of any system that democracy in the future to build and bring to life'.

. 'Final essence' in Dewey's philosophy can be regarded as 'experience'
. 'Experience' - one of the most ambiguous words in human language. Usually, they say, Dewey pointed out that the man 'closer to reality than any further from the experience that has ever had'. In contrast to this orthodox conception, Dewey launched 'heretical' thesis: 'Experience - no curtain, hiding from human nature ... In the experience is not perceived experience, but nature - stones, plants, animals, disease, health, temperature, electricity, etc. ', including' devotion, piety, love, beauty and mystery '. In other words, 'experience' means everything, literally everything. Intelligent reverence for this 'all', . his deliberate and continuous research in pursuit of facts and values, . light and guidance, . Support and updates are, . terms Dewey, . intellectual prerequisites, . moral and religious integrity of a person,
. Errors philosophers, and all the people arose 'from a lack of confidence in directing the forces inherent in experience, which can only follow the brave and courageous people'.

According to Dewey, experience is a complex web of events, each of which has its nature and history. Some of these events occur, subject to certain regularity, others represent a game of chance; useful for some people, others cause them harm. The major problem of rights - learn how to manage them, for this we conducted experiments in which we find the causes of events. Complex interweaving of events, involving the people, gives him the opportunity to combine realism and idealism, to combine practicality with the inevitable cherished ideals. From the perspective of Dewey, there is only one reliable way to achieve this goal - 'intelligence', an open and experimental way of thinking bespredposylochnoe. In contrast to the procedures of Pure Reason, where the main role played by feeling their sound accuracy, intelligence work can be seen from the side and compare with the requirements of the situation that led him to act. For example, when there is a certain problem, mainly expressed suspicion about how it can be solved. This hypothesis is verified and is correct or incorrect. In the first case, the act of thinking can be considered complete, in the latter it remains unfinished, and the problem or refuse, or try to solve it one more time, then thought begins anew. The essential difference between the mind of the intellect is, . that in the first case of 'the mind takes possession of objects or perceives them, . being as it were outside the world of things, . physical and social ', . in the second he took the position of 'party, . Interacting with other things and knowing them in accordance with certain rules',
. Different procedures lead to different results. Due to reason a man reaches the theoretically reliable knowledge about the continuing reality, thanks to the intelligence he is able to manage the constantly changing reality, consisting of a variety of events

. Throughout career Dewey adhered to the principle, . which was formulated by him in the head, . written for the collection of creative intelligence (Creative Intelligence, . 1917), . and which his colleagues were forced to remember, . even if were not able to follow it: 'philosophy is reborn, . when it ceases to be a means of resolving the problems of philosophers and becomes a method ..,
. solve the problems of humanity '

. Dewey has always been faithful to science, . however, has repeatedly warned, . that 'science itself still resides in childhood', and many correctable flaws are actually the result of 'unbalanced, . unilateral application of research methods and verification, . who alone have the right to be called a science ',
. He believed that the human being is a combination of the developing organism and influencing it processes natural and social environment. For Dewey's logic - a theory research, not theory proof. In this study, the symbols and things used for the reconstruction of peace researcher. Belief in religion, . is' always means a body of beliefs and ceremonies, . having a kind of institutional organization ', . Dewey proposed to replace the religious attitude towards all manifestations of life, . a belief in God as a specific substance - the belief in the forces of nature and society, . to 'raise and support the idea of welfare as the goal of our aspirations',

Dewey himself preferred to call his philosophy of experimentalism or even instrumentalism rather than pragmatism, as is usual in textbooks on philosophy. In 'Reconstruction in Philosophy', he wrote: 'When we give effect to the intention or plan, he directs us is true or false way, leading us to our goal, or distracts from it. The most important thing in it - its efficient, dynamic function, and the nature of the activities it generates, is the whole of its truth or falsity. The hypothesis that 'works' - is true,' truth '- an abstract noun, denoting the set of cases, actual, foreseen and desired, that receive confirmation of the very fact of its discovery and its consequences'. The needs and desires, served truth, are not, however, personal and emotional nature (as in James), and the nature of the 'universally significant'. Although Dewey emphasizes the functional purpose of judgments and laws (and even sensations, . facts and objects) and calls them the means, . guns, . tools or operations to make the uncertain situation in some of the research process, . he does not deny, . that the judgments and laws also play a cognitive role,
. He argues that 'the essence of utilitarian instrumentalism lies in the interpretation of both knowledge and practice as a means for the production of useful things for life'. And still a learning process for Dewey is experimentation: causal judgments gain projective, heuristic and teleological, and not retrospective, frank or ontological meaning. Laws, in the event that perform special actions are to Dewey predictions of future events.

Among the major works Dewey - Leibniz (Leibniz, 1888); Education. School and Society (Education. The School and Society, . 1899); Experience and Education (Experience and Education, . 1938), . and Psychology (Psychology, . 1886); Studies in Theoretical Logic (Studies in Logical Theory, . 1903); How we think (How We Think, . 1910), Essays on Experimental Logic (Essays in Experimental Logic, . 1916), Reconstruction in Philosophy (Reconstruction in Philosophy, . 1920); human nature and behavior (Human Nature and Conduct, . 1922), Experience and Nature (Experience and Nature, . 1925); Search authenticity (The Quest for Certainty, . 1929); total faith (A Common Faith, . 1934), Art as Experience (Art as Experience, . 1934); logic as the theory of the study (Logic, . the Theory of Inquiry, . 1938); Freedom and Culture (Freedom and Culture, . 1939).,

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