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Josquin des Prés (Josquin des Prez)

( Music of the early Renaissance, one of the greatest masters of world music.)

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Biography Josquin des Prés (Josquin des Prez)
(ca. 1440 - ca. 1521)
Born between 1440 and 1450, presumably in the county of Bourgogne or the French province of Picardy. His name is used in different forms: Zhoskinus, Zhodokus, Zhuskino; Despres, Pratensis, and Prato, etc.. From the biography of the composer can be considered reliable few facts, although it is known that he traveled widely and was well received at various European courts. It is believed that Josquin boy sang in the choir of the church of St. kollegiatskoy. QUENTIN. From 1459 to 1472 he served in the choir of Milan's cathedral, and from 1474 to 1479 - at the court of the Duke of Milan. From 1486 to 1494 his name appears in the payroll of the papal chapel in Rome. In 1499 and then again in 1503 we find him at the court of Duke Ercole d'Este in Ferrara, Josquin visited France, and after 1503, apparently remained until the death of the Duke of Ferrara (1505). Some time later he returned to France, where he was head of the royal chapel (matre de chapelle) until the death of King Louis XII (1515). At the end of life was both a canon of the Church of St.. Gudule in Brussels and the rector of the Cathedral of Our Lady in Conde. It is assumed that he died in Conde in 1521, but maybe it happened three or four years later.
Josquin's contemporaries describe as a man with an open face and cunning eyes, witty, and inclined to joke, but diligent in their craft and strict in assessing their own work. It is unknown where and from whom he learned. It is possible that Josquin was not among its teachers well-known musicians. Arts, . which he inherited from predecessors, . primarily from Johannes (Jean) Okegema, . was a continuation of medieval mastery of counterpoint, . which (like the late-Gothic architecture) began to degenerate into a self-sufficient virtuosity,
. Invaluable contributions Josquin - purification and improvement of the old contrapuntal technique, which in his work became the foundation of a new, meaningful and sublime style. The most striking quality of his music - the immediacy and power of expression. His understanding of the task of music was deeply humanistic, Josquin, and therefore can be considered the first composer who became a par with the great poets, painters and architects of the Renaissance. In 1567 Florentine humanist Cosimo Bartoli talked about Zhoskene and Michelangelo as the two artists who 'opened the eyes of all who appreciate these arts'. When in 1868, music historian A. Ambros announced the first genius of Josquin in European music, he only repeated what he had claimed three centuries earlier

. It is impossible to analyze the many innovations, . Zhoskenom made into a musical language of his time; mention a few: his remarkable interpretation of the church modes, . often within the already classical harmonic structure, his preference for dicotyledonous meters instead of the old, . so-called 'perfect' trehdolnikov, his refined skills in the construction of polyphonic compositions based on pre-existing theme (or around it - the composition of cantus firmus); development of new technology fugirovannogo, . imitative counterpoint; bold use of sequences, . leading to the moment of highest dramatic tension, and finally, . economical use of opportunities choir, . where the joint sound of all votes (tutti) is laid up for climaxes,
. Many of these innovations prefigure the major achievements of art 16. Chanson Josquin - some funny, some gentle, thoughtful, sad, even heartbreaking - cause immediate feedback from listeners, as well as his motets, which contain a lot of the most exciting artistic expressions wizard. Mass Josquin, because of their size, may be difficult to perceive from the first listen, but even here the efforts of listeners will be richly rewarded. Examples include the following works: Bergerette Savoysienne, Baisiez moi, Parfons regretz, Tu solus qui facis mirabilia, De profundis, Ave Maria; Mass De Beata Virgine and Pange lingua. Among the works of other genres - uncelebrated Stabat Mater and the Miserere amazing. Heritage Josquin consists of 20 masses and a number of individual songs from the service, about a hundred motets, psalms and hymns, 52 secular works in French and 3 in the Italian texts.

The wide dissemination of works of Josquin contributed to the invention O. Petrucci new method of printing notes. Since 1501 and until the end of the century Petrucci and other publishers have published a significant part of the legacy of the composer, with many works repeatedly reprinted. Scientific publishing the complete works of the composer was launched in 1921 by Dr. A. Smidzhersom (Netherlands) and completed in 1969.

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Josquin des Prés (Josquin des Prez), photo, biography
Josquin des Prés (Josquin des Prez), photo, biography Josquin des Prés (Josquin des Prez)  Music of the early Renaissance, one of the greatest masters of world music., photo, biography
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