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Lazar Kaganovich Moiseevich

( Party and state leaders)

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Biography Lazar Kaganovich Moiseevich
Born 10 (22) November 1893 in the village of Cabana Chernobyl County Kiev province in a poor family of cattle-dealer (supplier of animals for slaughter). In 13 years, receiving primary education, had gone to seek a livelihood in Kiev, got a tannery. In 1911 was involved in the revolutionary movement of his elder brother Michael, joined the RSDLP (Bolshevik wing), active in the union tanners. In 1915 he was arrested and deported to his native village and then went into hiding and his wife Mary moved to Yuzovka where, after the February Revolution, he became Deputy Chairman of the Local Council and the Chairman of tanners. In the spring of 1917 he was sent to the Bolsheviks in the army for advocacy. In March-April 1917 the chairman of the military organization of the Bolsheviks in Samara. In June 1917 participated in the meetings of the All-Russia conference of military organizations in the RSDLP (b) in Petrograd, elected to nationwide office of military organizations. After returning to Saratov arrested and sent to the front, but in Gomel by local Bolsheviks released. In August 1917 the chairman of the Polesie Committee RSDLP (b) (Gomel), played an important role in the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks in the Gomel and Mogilev
. After the October Revolution, Kaganovich was brought to the creation of the Red Army: in 1918 became Commissioner of organizational and propaganda department of the All-Russia panel on the organization of the Red Army, . which enabled him to establish personal relationships with a number of prominent Bolsheviks,

In mid-1918 was sent to Nizhny Novgorod, who in connection with the advance units of the Czechoslovak Corps has become a frontline town. During his tenure as chairman of the Nizhny Novgorod regional committee of the RCP (B.) and the executive committee (May 1918 - August 1919), implemented the guidance of Lenin with the help of mass terror, including the executions of hostages from among the 'class-alien elements'. Manifested in this period of commitment Kaganovich ideas excessive centralization of party and state leadership and the ruthlessness of an even more entrenched in the defense of Voronezh (from September 1919 to August 1920), Voronezh gubrevkoma chairman and executive committee) and the suppression of Basmachis in Turkestan (in 1920-1921 - a member of the Central Bureau of Turkestan RCP (b), . Turkkomissii Central Executive Committee and SNK of the RSFSR, . People's Commissar of Workers and Peasants' Inspection of the Belorussian SSR, . Chairman of the Tashkent City Council),
. In 1921 I was transferred to trade union activities: the All instructor, instructor and secretary of the Moscow Committee and secretary of the Union of tanners.

Career Kaganovich was a sharp acceleration in 1922, after Stalin became general secretary. Thanks to VV Kuibyshev Kaganovich was transferred to Moscow to work in the apparatus of the RCP (b), to head the organization and Instruction, and then organizational and distribution department. Through the department were all appointments and move into positions of responsibility. Since 1923, a candidate for membership in May 1924 a member of the RCP (B), from June 1924 to December 1925 - Member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee, from June 1924 to April 1925 - Secretary of the RCP (B). Working next to the secretaries of the Central Committee of VM Molotov, VV Kuibyshev and Stalin, has established close relationships with. He proved himself an indispensable assistant to Stalin in the fight against the opposition in the top party leadership. Actively assisted him in the fight against the Trotskyites and the 'right'.

In April 1925 he was appointed general secretary of the CC CP (b) of Ukraine. Fully supported Stalin's line on the NEP, fought for the build-up of capital investments in the industrial development of Ukraine, in particular, was an adherent of the construction of the Dnieper power. Difficulties in the campaign grain explained in his speech at the July (1928) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) only the resistance of the kulaks. Implemented the policies 'Ukrainianization' - the nomination of Ukrainian personnel and the involvement of Ukrainians in the party, . had a tough time cleaning Party cadres, . excluding from the party and repressed a large number of local Communists accused of nationalism and 'national deviationism',

In June 1926, Kaganovich was elected a candidate member of the Politburo, in July 1928 returned to Moscow for the post of secretary of the Central.

The first half of 1930 - the peak of career, Kaganovich, the period of its greatest influence. Since July 1930, he - a member of the Politburo of the CPSU (b). In December 1930, following the appointment of VM Molotov, Chairman of the SNK, Kaganovich, Stalin appointed as his deputy in the party. Kaganovich, not only spearheaded the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee and a number of major departments of the Central Committee and the meetings of the Politburo during the holiday season Stalin, chaired numerous committees of the Politburo.

Kaganovich - one of the main organizers of emergency grain and terror in the period of mass starvation. During Stalin's collectivization was an emissary of the major grain-growing regions of the country (Ukraine, Siberia, North Caucasus). Everywhere seek to increase the pace of collectivization, had acted harshly and without mercy, sent out hundreds of thousands of 'kulaks' and 'prokulak', sometimes whole villages. He was one of the founders in 1933 of a new system of administrative and repressive control over agriculture by organizing a network of political departments and state farms. The spring of 1932 took an active part in suppressing the strikes of workers of Ivanovo-Voznesensk associated with reduced food supply on the card.

From February 1931 to January 1934 - first secretary of the Moscow city committee of the CPSU (b). Under the leadership of Kaganovich was modernized city, . deployed new construction, . during which ruthlessly, . masse, . of historic and architectural monuments (the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, . Sukharev Tower, . Holy Monastery, etc.),
. Kaganovich held under the personal supervision of prisoners being erected by the channel 'Moscow - Volga' and the construction of the capital's subway, named after launch in 1935, his name.

In 1933-1934 as chairman of the Central Commission for verification partdokumentov Party cleansing directed against the real and imaginary enemies of Stalin. Continue this work as the first chairman of the Party Control Commission, formed after the reorganization at the XVII Congress of the Central Control Commission of the CPSU (b).

At the same time headed a number of Central Committee departments and commissions: the Agriculture Department (1933), Transport Department and Traffic Commission of the Central Committee and SNK (1934-1935).

Like all the followers of Stalin, Kaganovich involved in massive repression, show trials, purges, deportations and. Many times sent by Stalin to the 'Check' in various regions of the country (Ivanovo, Western Region, Chelyabinsk, Donbass), which ended the repressive actions. When expulsion from the party Kaganovich was accused of having personally signed the execution lists for the 36 thousand. man. During Stalin's ability to achieve set goals by any means earned him the nickname "Iron Lazar '.

In the second half of 1930 career Kaganovich has declined. Being a member of the Politburo and Central Committee of the Organization Bureau, . in February 1935, Kaganovich has given way to the chairman of the Control Committee of NI Ezhov, . in August 1939 was dismissed as Secretary of the Central Committee and later was used mostly on economic work,

From February 1935 to August 1937 - People's Commissar of Railways of the USSR. Even before the mass purges of senior staff has arrested more than 3 thousand. people from among the railway workers, leaving the Commissariat virtually no top and middle management staff. From August 1937 to January 1939 - People's Commissar of Heavy Industry. From June 1938 to March 1953 (with short breaks in May - December 1944 and March - December 1947) served as deputy chairman of the SNK (Council of Ministers) of the USSR. Simultaneously, the People's Commissar of Railways of the USSR (April 1938 - March 1942 and February 1943 - December 1944); Commissar of the fuel industry of the USSR (January - October 1939), the People's Commissar of the USSR Oil Industry (October 1939 - July 1940).

During the Great Patriotic War, Kaganovich - a member of the State Defense Committee of the USSR, member of the Military Council of the North Caucasus Front, a member of the Military Council of the Transcaucasian Front.

In the postwar period, Kaganovich had fallen into disfavor. He allowed only occasionally attend meetings in the Kremlin office, in March 1946, he was removed from the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee and was appointed Minister of Construction Materials Industry. In March 1947, when it took an extraordinary and drastic measures to implement the plan of grain covered by the post-war famine in Ukraine, Stalin thought of the 'talents' Kaganovich, and appointed him as first secretary of the CC CP (b) U. In December 1947, Kaganovich was returned to Moscow and from January 1948 to October 1952 headed the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on logistics

. After the death of Stalin, Kaganovich got a modest post of first deputy chairman of USSR Council of Ministers (March 1953 - June 1957), . while from May 1955 to June 1956 he was chairman of the State Committee of USSR Council of Ministers of Labor and wages from September 1956 to May 1957 - Minister of Construction Materials Industry of the USSR,

As a member of the Presidium of the Central Kaganovich supported Khrushchev against Beria, consented to his arrest and execution. However, Khrushchev's attempts to launch a campaign cautious, half-de-Stalinization led by Kaganovich backlash. However, with VM Molotov, and Malenkov, Kaganovich opposed Khrushchev, having received the support of most members of the Presidium of the Central. As a result, this group was defeated, and for involvement in 'anti-Party group' June 29, 1957, Mr.. the decision of the Plenum of the Central Committee Kaganovich was removed from all his posts, was removed from the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU Central Committee and. Received a severe reprimand to be entered in an index card 'for conduct unbecoming a member of the Communist Party ranks, with the mockery of the subordinate employees', was sent to work the Director of the Ural potash plant. In 1961 at the XXII Congress of the CPSU criticized and accused of organizing mass repressions of the 1930's. In December 1961, Kaganovich was expelled from the Communist Party regional committee of the party organizations Krasnopresnensky Moscow. From 1961 - pensioner. He lived in Moscow in self-imposed seclusion on Frunze Embankment.

Following the resignation of Khrushchev's attempts to regain membership in the CPSU.

Kaganovich Moskve25 died in July 1991. He was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery.

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