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( The King of France)

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Biography KARL VII
Son of Charles VII and Isabella of Bavaria, was born in Paris on February 22, 1403. When in April 1417 died last elder brother Charles, 11-th child in the family, he became Dauphin and heir. During the civil war between the Armagnac and Bourguignon, who joined Armagnac Charles was forced in 1418 to flee Paris and take refuge in Bourges. In 1420 Isabella signed the Treaty of Troyes, by which Charles was deprived of the right to the throne in favor of King Henry V. After Henry died in 1422 and was succeeded (including the French throne), son of Henry VI, in which the regent was appointed Duke of Bedford. Soon after he died and Charles VI, and then Charles was crowned at Poitiers (the traditional place of coronation of French kings - Reims), but it recognized only the king of the south and south-west of the country (ie. to the south of the Loire). Despite the support of Arthur III, Duke Rishmonta, Karl did not believe in their strength. Confidence was detected in it only with the appearance of Joan of Arc, who saved Orleans in 1429, removing him from the siege, and in the same year, arranged the coronation of Charles at Rheims. After that, Charles managed to win the British part of the northern regions, he established relations with an ally of the British Duke of Burgundy Philip III the Good, signing a contract with him at Arras in 1435. In 1436 Charles joined in Paris, who agreed to open its gates to him in exchange for amnesty. In 1444 in Tours armistice was signed with the British. Carl introduced significant changes in the management of the kingdom. Issued in 1438 in Bourges Pragmatic Sanction, Karl limited papal authority in France: now the King, as well as the feudal lords could interfere in the electoral process abbots and bishops. Thus was laid the foundation Gallicanism determined by an independent French Catholic Church. Royal ordinances issued in 1445-1448, gave life to a new French army, the core of which had hired royal cavalry and free hands-infantry. This meant the end of the traditional feudal army. There was a monetary reform, improve the field of finance, introduced a complete coin. Carl entered the permanent taxes, including a special war tax, and greatly restricted the powers of the States General, practically ceased to convene in the second half of his reign. Through the activities of the businessman Jacques Kera, who held important posts under Charles, the situation has improved in the French economy. Karl has made an effort to make clear the country of the robber gang led by aristocrats were often. Some of these bands were included in the regular French army. In 1440, Karl relatively easy to put down the mutiny attempt big feudal lords (TN. Prager), who were joined by his son Louis. With an entire galaxy of talented military commanders, which Karl attracted to the service, to continue the offensive on the British possessions in France. Victory at Formini (near Bayeux) in 1450 allowed him to return to Normandy. The victory at Castillon in 1453 (the last battle of the Hundred Years War) and the taking of the same year provided the reconquest of Aquitaine, Bordeaux, then in the hands of the British left only Calais. Mistress Carla famous Agnes Sorel was the first official favorite of the French history. Charles died in Meene-sur-Yevr (near Bourges), July 22, 1461.

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