Charles XII( The King of Sweden.)
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Biography Charles XII
Carl, the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora, daughter of the King of Denmark Frederick III, was born in Stockholm on June 27, 1682. Mother died in 1693, and were acutely aware of this loss of his father everywhere he took the boy with him, taught him the responsibility of the sovereign. After the death of Charles XI in April 1697 the young Charles, who was not quite 15 years, despite his father's suicide had insisted on recognition of his age and took power into their own hands. Meanwhile, the powers of the Swedish king was very large - thanks conducted by Karl XI changes in the management system, which turned it into a nearly absolute monarchy.
In 1697 Europe was the eve of the War of Spanish Succession, and the still vast stretches of the Swedish Empire eagerly watched her neighbors to the north - Denmark, Prussia, Poland and Russia. In 1699 Denmark, Poland and Russia have formed a coalition antishvedskuyu. However, Denmark has fallen out of this union, it was worth Carla force and lay siege to the Strait of Oresund Copenhagen. (It should say, . that from now on more than Carl had never appeared in Stockholm, . and ruled the country with the help of messages and messengers.) Danes, . are totally did not expect the young king such impetuosity, . were forced to conclude with him on Aug. 18, 1700 Travendalsky world,
. After Copenhagen, Karl moved his troops in the Baltic provinces, which devastated the army of Peter the Great, besieged at this time Narva. 19 November 1700 at Narva Charles defeated the superior forces of the Russian, and then moved on to the last of him opposing allies - Poland. The years from 1702 to 1707, Karl spent in Poland, where pretty bogged down, losing time and initiative, while Peter the Great tirelessly to build up the strength of the Russian state. Nevertheless, in the end Charles succeeded to put on the throne of Poland Stanislas Leszczynski, forcing Augustus II to renounce all claims in accordance with the terms of the peace treaty signed in September 1706 in Altranshtadte.
Now, Karl has decided to launch military action against Russia, which he carried out in autumn 1707. Russian army used effective tactics 'scorched earth', and Charles turned south, hoping to winter and to win over Igor Mazepa, Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks. Last failed because as a result of the coup prepared by Peter the Great Mazeppa was deposed and went to Charles as a fugitive at the head's small detachment. One of the commanders of the army, General Charles Adam Lewenhaupt went to him with a large wagon train, but on Sept. 28, 1708 at Forest, he was defeated and lost his entire baggage train. The brutal winter of 1708-1709 caused damage to the Swedes in manpower and horses, and Peter meanwhile was preparing to resume war. Finally, 8 July 1709, under siege by the Swedes took decisive battle of Poltava. Carl excellent command of the troops, but the preponderance of Russian troops and artillery, made itself felt, and the Swedes were routed. Charles fled to Turkey, where he remained until 1714. Northern Alliance States resumed the war, Peter invaded Finland, the Swedish troops ousted from the Baltic provinces, and continued the construction of St. Petersburg. Karl has led Turkey to attack Russia, but as a result of difficult negotiations, the price concessions of Azov, and Peter was able to bribe to get out of the trap, which fell on the Prut River in June and July 1711. The Turks have repeatedly appealed to Charles to the requirements to leave the territory of Turkey. February 12, 1713 at Bender among his retinue, and the masters of this massacre took place (a so-called. kalabalyk), when Charles with 300 soldiers fought off a large crowd of advancing. But the Turks and was captured and resettled under Adrianople, he humbled. Karl spent 10 months here in bed, never with it not rising, because he hoped that the Turks still dare to a new action against Russia.
So did not know anything, Karl with a foreign passport and a wig for 16 days, far roundabout way (not to follow through Saxony and Prussia) galloped in Stralsund November 11, 1714. Swedish empire Carl found in a completely disordered state, but did not change myself and not moved, as was once the father, to peaceful pursuits. To defend the besieged Stralsund he failed, the city surrendered on Dec. 24, 1715, after Charles left for Sweden, but for Stralsund were lost and all the other Swedish possessions in Germany. The last years of his life Charles had, ready to repel the expected attack in 1716 by Denmark and Russia, as well as double invading Norway. During the last campaign on Dec. 11, 1718, Charles was killed by a shot from Falconet at the siege of the fort Frederikshall (now Halden). The circumstances of his death has long aroused suspicions historians, and make this issue a final clarity has not been. When Charles ascended the Swedish throne by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who in 1720 handed the crown to her husband, Frederick I of Hesse.