Rudolf Carnap (Carnap Rudolf)( The American philosopher of German descent, a prominent representative of logical positivism, who made a significant contribution to the development of logic and philosophy of science.)
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Biography Rudolf Carnap (Carnap Rudolf)
He was born in Wuppertal, 18 May 1891. He was educated at Jena and the University of Freiburg. In Jena he attended lectures Frege, the same in 1921 defended his doctoral dissertation. Carnap taught first in the University of Vienna (1926-1931), and then at the Deutsche University in Prague (1931-1935). During these years he was one of the most active members of the group of philosophers and mathematicians, known as the Vienna Circle, and was interested in the problems of logic and scientific method. Together with Reichenbach founded the magazine 'Erkentnis' ( 'Erkenntnis', 1930-1940). He is also one of the founders of the famous series 'International Encyclopedia of Unified Science' ( 'International Encyclopedia of Unified Science'). In 1936 he emigrated to the U.S.. A professor at the University of Chicago (1936-1952) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1954-1970). In 1952-1954 he worked at Princeton University. Carnap died in Santa Monica (pc. California) September 14, 1970
. Logical positivism (or logical empiricism), . rejecting metaphysics and seeks to find the truth about the world solely through the Natural Sciences, . owes its name to two main theses: 1) the solution of philosophical problems requires a logical analysis of language, . which formulated the problem, . and, therefore, logic plays a central role in philosophy, 2), any meaningful theory, . not a purely logical or mathematical, . should be available empirical testing,
. Widely known work of Carnap Overcoming metaphysics through logical analysis of language (Die berwindung der Methaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache, 1932). Proceedings of the philosopher provide a thorough development of these theses and form a broad theoretical basis for their use; they also developed the tools of logical analysis in philosophy. Among the works of Carnap on logic and semantics - The logical structure of the world (Der logische Aufbau der Welt, 1928); Essay on Logistics (Abriss der Logistik, 1929); Boolean syntax (Der logische Syntax der Sprache, 1934; English. authorized publication - The Logical Syntax of Language, 1937), Foundations of logic and mathematics (Foundations of Logic and Mathematics, 1939), Studies in Semantics (Studies in Semantics, v. 1-2, 1942-1943), Meaning and Necessity (Meaning and Necessity, 1947), Introduction to Symbolic Logic and Its Applications (Introduction to Symbolic Logic and Its Applications, 1958), as well as other books and numerous articles. An analysis of Carnap's philosophical problems, including a discussion of the principle of verification, is contained in his writings on epistemology and philosophy of science
. Carnap argues, . in various fields of natural and social sciences using a common method of testing hypotheses and theories, . and concepts, . used in these areas, . be reduced, . using special 'offers information' (on operational definitions and postulates values), . to one common basis - the concepts, . which we use to describe the familiar to all of the physical world, . surround us (TN,
. physicalism). An important result in Carnap's analysis of the relation between theory and experiment is strictly formalized quantitative theory of logical probability, ie. degree of inductive, or probability, confirming the theory. Its main work in this area: Logical foundations of probability (Logical Foundations of Probability, 1950) and the continuum of inductive methods (The Continuum of Inductive Methods, 1951). The last years of life Carnap devoted to the development of various aspects and applications of inductive logic.