Carnö? Nicolas Lö?onard Sadi (Carnot Nicolas-Lonard Sadi)( French physicist and engineer, one of the founders of thermodynamics.)
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Biography Carnö? Nicolas Lö?onard Sadi (Carnot Nicolas-Lonard Sadi)
Born June 1, 1796 in Paris, the son of renowned political figure and scientist L. Carnot. Received an excellent education at home and education, then studied at the Lycö?e Charlemagne and the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. By its completion in 1814 was sent to the Engineering School in Metz. In 1816 he was assigned to the Corps of Engineers and for several years served as a military engineer. Took part in the competition for filling vacant positions in the corps headquarters in Paris. After winning the competition, moved to the capital. He continued to study, attending lectures at the Sorbonne, College de France, the Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. In the Conservatory Carnot met with the physicist N. Clö?ment, who was researching the properties of gases. Communicate with Clö?ment awakened by Carnot interest in improving steam engines. In 1824 he published his essay Reflections on the motive power of fire and on machines that can develop this force (Rflexiones sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres dveloppe cette puissance). In it he introduced the scientific use many concepts used in thermodynamics and now: the ideal heat engine, the ideal cycle, the reversibility of the process, etc.. However, the main merit of the scientist was leading ideas about the need to create a temperature difference between the current cycle heat engine and the fact, . that the amount of work is determined only by difference in temperature between the heater and the refrigerator and do not depend on the nature of the working body (Carnot's theorem),
. He came to the concept of mechanical equivalent of heat and formulated in general terms, the energy conservation law.
The only published work by Carnot was assessed only ten years later, when B. Clapeyron stated it in mathematical form and introduced a graphical method of describing the Carnot cycle. Do with the presentation of this Carnot became known to other scientists and served as the basis for the development of classical thermodynamics in the writings of W. Thomson (Kelvin), R. Clausius and others