Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (Kirchhoff Gustav Robert)( German physicist.)
Comments for Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (Kirchhoff Gustav Robert)
Biography Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (Kirchhoff Gustav Robert)
Born March 12, 1824 in Konigsberg. In 1846 he graduated from the University of Kц╤nigsberg. Professors at universities in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) (1850), Heidelberg (since 1854) and Berlin (1875). The scientific work of Kirchhoff began, while still a student. In 1845-1847, . researching Circuit, . he discovered the laws of current flow in branched chains (regulations Kirchhoff), . in 1857 published an article on the distribution of alternating current through the wires, . results of which largely anticipated the ideas of Maxwell, . relating electromagnetic field,
. In 1859 Kirchhoff engaged in the analysis of linkages between the processes of emission and absorption of light. These studies prompted his observation, made earlier Foucault and Dzh.Stoksom, the proximity of the solar spectrum in the dark (Fraunhofer) D-lines and emission lines in the spectrum of Na. He soon found an interesting phenomenon - treatment of emission lines in the spectrum of Na when passed through the flame of sunlight: the bright spot emission lines appeared distinct dark. Just at that time approached by Bunsen, involved in the analysis of gases, based on observation of change in the color of the flame in giving him different elements. Kirchhoff observed that the method of analysis can be more informative if there is not just a flame color, and its spectrum. Joint development of this idea led to the creation of spectral analysis and discovery of new elements - cesium and rubidium. In 1859 at a meeting of the Prussian Academy of Sciences Kirchhoff made the announcement of the opening of the law of thermal radiation that the ratio of the emissivity of the body to the absorptivity is equal for all bodies at the same temperature (Kirchhoff's law). In 1862 he introduced the concept of 'blackbody' and suggested that his model - a cavity with a small hole. Development of radiation problems 'blackbody' eventually led to the creation of quantum theory of radiation. Kirchhoff has made a significant contribution to the generalization of Fresnel diffraction theory, he was also engaged in the theory of deformation of solids, vibration plates and discs, the movement of bodies in liquid medium. Among the major works of the scientist - studies of the solar spectrum and the spectra of chemical elements (Untersuchungen ber das Sonnenspectrum und die Spektren der chemischen Elemente, . 1861-1862), Lectures on Mathematical Physics (Vorlesungen ber mathematische Physik, . Bd,
. 1-4, 1874-1894). Kirchhoff died in Berlin on October 17, 1887.