LAPLACE, Pierre Simon (Laplace Pierre-Simon)( French mathematician, physicist and astronomer.)
Comments for LAPLACE, Pierre Simon (Laplace Pierre-Simon)
Biography LAPLACE, Pierre Simon (Laplace Pierre-Simon)
Born March 23, 1749 in Beaumont-en-OJ (Normandy). He studied at the School of the Benedictine monastic order. In 1766 arrived in Paris. Study mathematics, published in the journal Mathematical J. Lagrange. In 1771 on the advice of d'Alembert became a professor at the Military School in Paris. In 1790 he was appointed chairman of the House of Weights and Measures. After coming to power of Napoleon was the Minister of Internal Affairs (1799), received the title of Count.
Basic astronomical works are devoted to Laplace's Celestial Mechanics. This term coined himself Laplace in the title five-volume treatise on the fundamental work of celestial mechanics (Trait de Mcanique cleste, 1798-1825). He decided the complex problems of motion of the planets and their satellites, . in particular the Moon; developed the theory of perturbations of the trajectories of planets, . Sun and Moon, proposed a new method of calculating the orbits and prove the stability of the solar system, discovered the causes of acceleration in the movement of the Moon,
. In the history of cosmology, the most important place is the famous hypothesis of Laplace on the formation of the solar system from the gaseous nebula (nebular hypothesis), . which he formulated in the book exposition of the World (Exposition du systme du monde, . 1796),
Physical studies Laplace were areas of molecular physics, heat, acoustics, optics. In 1821 he established the law of change in air density with altitude (barometric formula). In 1806-1807 worked out the theory of capillary forces, derived a formula for determining the capillary pressure (Laplace's formula). With the help of designed them with the ice calorimeter Lavoisier determined the specific heats of various substances. Derived a formula for the speed of sound adjusted for adiabatic (1816)
. Laplace - the author of fundamental works on mathematics and mathematical physics, . first of all - the Treaty of Analytical theory of probability (Thorie analytique des probabilits, . 1812), . where you can find many of the later opening of the probability theory, . made by other mathematicians,
. It examines some questions of game theory, Bernoulli's theorem and its connection with the integral of the normal distribution, the theory of least squares; introduces 'Laplace', which later became the basis of the operational calculus. Well known Laplace equation in partial derivatives in the theory of building, heat and electrical conductivity, hydrodynamics.
Died Laplace in Paris March 5, 1827.