Littre Maximilien Paul Emile (Littre Maximilien Paul Emile)( The French philosopher, historian and philologist, the representative of positivism.)
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Biography Littre Maximilien Paul Emile (Littre Maximilien Paul Emile)
Born February 1, 1801 in Paris, in a military family. In his youth he studied medicine, took an interest in philology, including Oriental languages. After the revolution of 1930, in which Littre participated, became interested in politics, and later the humanities, especially history of ideas. Undertook the publication of the complete works of Hippocrates (Oeuvres compltes d'Hyppocrate, 1839-1861, 10 vols.), With an extensive introduction, and Pliny (2 volumes, 1858-1850) translated the Life of Jesus D. Strauss (1839-1840). In the 1840's became interested in the philosophy of Comte and make strenuous efforts to disseminate and promote the ideas of positivist philosophy of science in France. To this period belongs his book on positive philosophy (De la philosophie positive, 1845). Littre published his work, in particular, in the republican newspaper 'National' ( 'National'), which collaborated in 1844 and in 1849-1851. Articles written by him during the revolution of 1848 and published in this newspaper, later in the book Ohranitelstvo, revolution, positivism (Conservation, rvolution, positivisme, 1852).
Like Comte, Littre not equate positivism with atheism or materialism, believing that positive philosophy can resolve the conflict between the immanent and transcendent, science and religion. But being a strong supporter of Comte, he does not share his views. In general, kontovskoy philosophy he was interested in actually positivism, rather than a positive policy that Comte sought to withdraw from its conception. Partly because of this connection to 1851 Littre with Comte weakened, its role is played by political differences. Assigning positivism more ethical and practical significance, . seeing it as an effective tool for the development of science, . Education, . Arts, . means of improving the manners, . Littre thought, . that kontovskoy philosophy lacked an elaborate theory of morality, . aesthetics and psychology, . and considered it necessary to fill this gap,
. (Religion of humanity, . proposed by Comte, . he rejected.) After the death of Comte Littre published a speech on a positive philosophy (Paroles de philosophie positive, . 1859) and Auguste Comte and positive philosophy (Auguste Comte et la philosophie positive, . 1863), . setting out his vision of positivism,
Another area of interest was Littre Philology. In 1850-ies he was with his friend, Louis Hachette, prepared and published a French dictionary (Dictionnaire de la langue franaise), which has had an enormous influence on the development of French lexicography and culture in general.
In 1867, he founded Littre 'Magazine positive philosophy' ( 'Revue de philosophie positive'), unreleased until 1883. In 1871 became a member of the French Academy of Sciences. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies (1871), later - a senator for life (1875); defended republican views
. Among his other works - Use positive philosophy to the system board (Application de la philosophie positive au gouvernement, . 1849); science from a philosophical point of view (La science au point de vue philosophique, . 1873); Fragments of positive philosophy, and contemporary sociology (Fragments de philosophie positive et de sociologie contemporaine, . 1876),
Died Littre in Paris June 2, 1881.