John Locke (Locke John)( English philosopher, sometimes called `intellectual leader of the 18 century.` And the first philosopher of the Enlightenment.)
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Biography John Locke (Locke John)
His theory of knowledge and social philosophy had a profound impact on the history of culture and society, in particular on the development of the American Constitution. Locke was born August 29, 1632 in Ringtones (Somerset) in the family court official. Thanks to the victory of Parliament in the Civil War, where his father fought as a captain of cavalry, Locke was adopted at the age of 15 years at Westminster School - while the leading institutions in the country. The family adhered to Anglican, however inclined to Puritan (Independents) views. In Westminster, the royalist ideas were strong advocate in the person of Richard Bazbi who inadvertently parliamentary leaders continued to lead the school. In 1652 Locke entered Christ Church College, Oxford University. By the time the restoration of the Stuarts his political views could be called pravomonarhicheskimi and in many respects similar views of Hobbes.
Locke was a diligent, if not a brilliant student. After receiving a master's degree in 1658 he was elected as a 'student' (ie. Fellow) College, but soon became disillusioned with the Aristotelian philosophy, which was supposed to teach, he began to practice medicine and help in natural science experiments conducted at Oxford, Boyle and his disciples. However, any significant results had not been received, and when Locke returned from a trip to the Brandenburg court on a diplomatic mission, he was denied a desired degree of Doctor of Medicine. Then, at age 34, he met a man who influenced the rest of his life - Lord Ashley, later first Earl of Shaftesbury, who was not yet leader of the opposition. Shaftesbury was a lawyer of freedom at a time when Locke was still shared the absolutist views of Hobbes, but by 1666 his position changed and became closer to the views of the future patron. Shaftesbury and Locke saw in each other kindred spirits. A year later, Locke left Oxford and took the place of family doctor, counselor and educator in the family of Shaftesbury, who lived in London (among his pupils was, and Anthony Shaftesbury). After Locke operated on his patron whose life is threatened suppuration of the cyst, Shaftesbury thought that Locke is too large to deal with one medicine, and took care of his ward advancing in other areas.
Under the roof of the house Shaftesbury, Locke found his true vocation - he became a philosopher. Discussions with Shaftesbury and his friends (Anthony Ashley, . Thomas Sidenhemom, . David Thomas, . Thomas Hodges, . James Tyrrel) led Locke to write the fourth year stay in London on the first draft of the future masterpiece - Essay on human understanding (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding),
. Sidenhem introduced him to new methods of clinical medicine. In 1668, Locke became a member of the Royal Society. Shaftesbury himself put it in the worlds of politics and economics, and gave him the opportunity to get the first experience of participation in government.
Liberalism Shaftesbury was sufficient materialistic. Great passion of his life was trade. He is better than his contemporaries knew what wealth - national and personal - can be obtained by freeing businesses from the medieval extortion and making a number of other bold steps. Religious tolerance has allowed Dutch merchants to prosper, . and Shaftesbury was convinced, . that if the British put an end to religious strife, . it would create an empire, . not only superior to the Dutch, . but of equal possessions of Rome,
. However, in the way England had a great Catholic Power, France, so he did not want to spread the principle of religious tolerance on the 'papists', as he called the Catholic.
While interested in the practical affairs of Shaftesbury, Locke was busy working on the same political line in the theory, arguing the philosophy of liberalism, which expressed the interests of nascent capitalism. In 1675-1679 he lived in France (Montpellier and Paris), where he studied, in particular, the ideas of Gassendi and his school, and fulfilled a number of assignments Whig. Turned, . that Locke's theory was intended revolutionary future, . as Charles II, . and still more his successor, James II to justify its policy of tolerance to Catholicism, and even his plantation in England appealed to the traditional concept of monarchy,
. After an unsuccessful attempt to revolt against the regime restoration of Shaftesbury in the end, after the conclusion of the Tower and the subsequent justification of the London court, he fled to Amsterdam, where he soon died. Having made an attempt to continue his teaching career at Oxford, . Locke, in 1683 went after his patron in Holland, . where he lived in 1683-1689, in 1685 in the list of other refugees, he was called a traitor (the conspiracy Monmouth) and be delivered to the British Government,
. Locke did not return to England until the successful landing of William of Orange on the coast of England in 1688 and the flight of James II. Returning home on the same ship with the future Queen Mary II, . Locke published his two treatises on Governance (Two Treatises of Government, . 1689, . book bearing the year of publication 1690), . stating in her theory of revolutionary liberalism,
. Becoming a classic in the history of political thought, this book also played an important role, according to its author, 'the justification of the right of King William to be our ruler'. In this book, Locke put forward the concept of social contract, in which the only true basis of the sovereign authority is the consent of the people. If the ruler does not justify the confidence people have a right and even obliged to cease to obey him. In other words, people have a right to revolt. But how to decide when it ceases to serve the ruler of the people? According to Locke, a moment comes when the governor goes on the board, based on the solid principle of 'volatile, uncertain and arbitrary' rule. Most Englishmen were convinced that such a moment came when James II was to prokatolicheskuyu policy in 1688. Sam Locke, along with Shaftesbury and his associates were convinced that the moment has come under Charles II in 1682, it was then, and was created a manuscript of the Two Treatises.
Locke said his return to England in 1689, the publication of another work, similar in content to the treatise, namely, the first letter of tolerance (Letter for Toleration, written mostly in 1685). He wrote the text in Latin (Epistola de Tolerantia), . in order to publish it in Holland, . and on accidents in the English text has got preface (written by the translator, . Unitarian William Pople), . which proclaimed, . that 'absolute freedom ..,
. - This is what we need '. Locke himself was not a supporter of absolute freedom. In his view, deserved the persecution of Catholics, since swore allegiance to a foreign ruler, the pope, atheists - because they swore not to believe. As all the others, the state should leave every right to salvation in their own way. The letter of toleration, Locke spoke out against the traditional view according to which the secular authorities may enforce the true faith and true morality. He wrote that the force can make people only pretend, but does not believe. A strengthening of morality (that does not affect our national security and the preservation of peace) - is the duty not to state, and church.
Locke himself was a Christian and adhered to Anglicanism. But his personal creed was surprisingly brief and consisted of a single judgments: Christ - the Messiah. In ethics he was a hedonist, and he believed that the natural purpose of human life is happiness, and that the New Testament have people the way to happiness in this life and eternal life. Locke saw his task is to warn people looking for happiness in the short-term pleasures for which subsequently have to pay pain.
Returning to England during the 'Glorious Revolution, Locke initially intended to take his post at Oxford University, from which was dismissed on the orders of Charles II in 1684 after the departure to the Netherlands. However, finding that the place is given to a certain young man, he abandoned this idea and spent the remaining 15 years of life, research and public service. Soon after Locke found, . that enjoys reputation, . but not because of his political writings, . coming out anonymously, . but as the author of An Essay on human understanding (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding), . first who saw the light in 1690, . however, started in 1671 and largely completed in 1686,
. Experience withstood a number of publications in the life of the author, the most recent fifth edition containing corrections and additions, was published in 1706, after the death of the philosopher.
It is no exaggeration to say that Locke was the first modern thinker. His way of reasoning quite different from the thinking of the medieval philosophers. Consciousness of medieval man was filled with thoughts of otherworldly world. Um Locke are practical, empiricism, it is the mind of the enterprising person, even philistine: 'What are the benefits - he asked - from the poetry? " He lacked the patience to understand the intricacies of the Christian religion. He did not believe in miracles and regarded with aversion to mysticism. Do not believe people who are saints, and those who are constantly thinking about heaven and hell. Locke believed that people should perform their duties in a world where he lives. 'Our share - he wrote - here in this little town on Earth, and neither we nor our worries are not destined to leave its limits'.
Locke was far from being despised by London society, which moved through the success of his works, but was unable to make the city stuffiness. Most of his life he suffered from asthma, and after sixty suspected that he was sick with tuberculosis. In 1691 he accepted an invitation to settle in a country house in Otse (Essex) - invitation Meshem lady, the wife of a member of Parliament and the daughter of a Cambridge Platonist Ralph Kedvorta. However, Locke did not allow myself to completely relax in a cozy home atmosphere, in 1696 he became Commissioner for trade and colonies, which caused him to appear regularly in the capital. By the time he was the intellectual leader of the Whigs, and many parliamentarians and public figures often turned to him for advice and requests. Locke took part in the conduct of monetary reform and helped abolish the law, interfering with freedom of the press. He was one of the founders of the Bank of England. In Otse Locke was engaged in raising a son lady Meshem and corresponded with Leibniz. Ibid, visiting him and. Newton, with whom they discussed the message of the Apostle Paul. However, his main occupation in this last period of life was the preparation for the publication of numerous works, whose ideas he first hatched. Among the works of Locke - Second letter of toleration (A Second Letter Concerning Toleration, . 1690); third letter of toleration (A Third Letter for Toleration, . 1692), Some thoughts on education (Some Thoughts Concerning Education, . 1693); Reasonableness of Christianity, . how it is transmitted to the Scriptures (The Reasonableness of Christianity, . as Delivered in the Scriptures, . 1695) and many others,
In 1700, Locke has abandoned all the positions and retired to Ots. Locke died in the house of a lady Meshem October 28, 1704.