Bernard Lonergan (Lonergan Bernard JF)( Canadian Roman Catholic theologian and philosopher.)
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Biography Bernard Lonergan (Lonergan Bernard JF)
Born in Buckingham (Quebec), December 17, 1904. At age 18, joined the Society of Jesus. In 1926-1929 he studied philosophy at Heytrop College and Romance philology, classical philology and mathematics at the University of London. In 1930-1933 he taught ancient languages and natural sciences at Loyola College in Montreal. He was then sent to the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome to study theology (1933-1937), and in 1936 he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1938, Lonergan returned to Rome, where he prepared and defended his doctoral dissertation (1940). In 1940-1953 he was - professor of dogmatics in Montreal and Toronto, in 1953-1965 - he taught dogmatics in the Gregorian University in Rome. In 1965 he returned to Regis College in Toronto. In 1969 - member of the International Theological Commission in Rome, 1971-1972 - Professor of Catholic Theology at the Harvard Theological School, and in 1975-1983 - professor of theology at Boston College (Chestnut Hill, ea. Mass.). After retirement, he lived in Pickering (Ontario, Canada), where he died Nov. 26, 1984. Lonergan has been awarded many scientific prizes, he was elected a corresponding member of the British Academy of Sciences and marked the highest order of their homeland - 'The Order of Canada'.
Scientific Papers. In English theology, Lonergan takes place, comparable to the place of Karl Rahner in German-speaking theology. Like Rahner, Lonergan was based on tradition (tradition) and through its new interpretation of searching for further ways of Theology. In thinking Lonergan crucial role, like Rahner, is transcendental reflection. In this thesis Grace and Freedom: encourage grace in the doctrine of St.. St. Thomas Aquinas (Grace and Freedom: Operative Grace in the Thought of St. Thomas Aquinas) addresses the problem of interaction of divine grace and human freedom, and an overview of the development of this perspective from Augustine to Thomas Aquinas, as well as a detailed analysis of the thinking at the Thomas. Decision Aquinas, . to which he came after a major refinement of the preceding theological concepts and intense debate with the Aristotelian doctrine of causes and the Arab philosophers, . raised the conceptual development of this problem at the level of, . which was subsequently made either nominalism, . nor baroque scholasticism (the dispute between supporters of the grace Banesa, . 1528-1604, . and Molina, . 1535-1600), . nor in the philosophy of the Enlightenment,
Thomas Lonergan clarifies the use of the word 'supernatural', used them to describe everything to God in his divinity 'natural', does it mean for a man blessed gift. Unlike Thomas, who is the usage occurs in the context of the idea of complicity, later commentators use the opposition 'supernatural - natural' to differentiate between levels (areas) of created reality. Equally important is the clarification Lonerganu Thomistic notion of 'treatment' (conversio)
. In the book Verbum: Word and idea in Aquinas (Verbum: Word and Idea in Aquinas, . 1967), . a collection of articles theologian late 1940's, . Lonergan, . starting from the doctrine of the soul, . developed by Aristotle, . and from introspection (introspection), . proceed to study the subject and subjectivity, . originated by Augustine,
. Both are present in the moment of Thomistic concept of internal origin of the word. Thomas - the last school of Aristotle, his observations and conceptual definitions, as well as the school of Augustine - step by step process traces the origin of the word as the true purpose of knowledge. Given the modern philosophical ideas and observations, Lonergan reconstructs the meaning of 'word' (verbum) at Thomas and endowed with the gift of words from the man as the image of God moves to Trinity. The spirit of man is the image of the Blessed Trinity, because of his understanding (intelligere) comes inner word, and from this event, there is love
. This thorough analysis, . through which Lonergan sought to develop a program of Pope Leo XIII - 'to enrich and improve the old new' (Vetera novis augere et perficere), . He concluded in his most voluminous work Insights: The study of human understanding (Insight: A Study of Human Understanding, . 1957),
. The purpose of this philosophical research - to understanding the very understanding. Need to understand the four acts of knowledge - experience, understanding, judging and decision making - and on this basis to clarify the methods of natural sciences and humanities and to see their relationship. In the second part of the book it comes to understanding the rights of self knowing and understanding the limits and comprehensive forms of understanding, namely the possible existence of metaphysics, ethics and natural theology. Separate steps of the evidence in the research process is accompanied by an analysis of errors and biases associated with different ways of understanding. As Lonergan entirely relies on the discretion of the inner and the penetration of acts of consciousness, his work is radically different from metaphysics and epistemology. Insights can be called pragmatics of cognition, because the main thing in the book - clarification of individual cognitive acts and practices.
In the course of work on the penetration into the essence Lonergan planned to develop a methodology to update Theology. This plan carried out in his book Method in Theology (Method in Theology, 1972). As in Insights, the method in theology, it comes to transcendental philosophical reflection on the basic instruments of knowledge - experience, understanding, judging and decision. Transcendental philosophical reflection is conducted in four phases. First, by an experienced comprehension of these four forms of work, then an understanding of these acts, their unity and the relationship. The third stage is made an affirmative proposition about reality know from experience, and that acts. Finally, the fourth stage, a decision 'to act in accordance with the norms inherent in the natural relationship of its own, know from experience, understood and approved by the act - experience, understanding, judgments and decisions'. The fourth stage involves three kinds of treatment: treatment to the truth, to moral good and religious conversion, consisting in the love of the divine mystery
. Lonergan throws stages of theological work: the understanding of basic data (evidence of faith in their historical context, religious practice); interpretation and presentation of information obtained during this and put forward hypotheses, . establish the weight of the data in their dialectical tension, . in correlation with the basic theological concepts (God, . Jesus, . Church, . salvation, . people, etc.), development of relevant categories and various forms of theological doctrine, as well as constantly updated systematization and transmission of results,
. In this methodology, the process of receiving a new interpretation of many important theological terms ( 'dogma', 'the historicity of dogma', etc.).
In the last years of life Lonergan worked on macroeconomic analysis of the modern European market economy. The difficulties facing the Christian churches in contact with modernity, rooted in his view, the lack of understanding of modern economic systems.
Proceedings Lonergan translated into many European and Oriental Languages. Center for the Study of his legacy established in North and South America, Europe, Australia and the Philippines. Lonergan Research Institute in Toronto, publishes a collection of his writings. Journal 'Method' ( 'Method. A Journal of Lonergan Studies'), . edition 'Lonerganovskie seminars' ( 'Lonergan Workshops') and informational publications Lonergan Research Institute provides information on research projects, . the Conference and, . associated with the study of heritage theologian,
. The Internet has several sites devoted Lonerganu.