James Russell Lowell (Lowell James Russell)( American poet, critic, editor.)
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Biography James Russell Lowell (Lowell James Russell)
Born February 22, 1819 in Cambridge (pc. Mass.). At the end of Harvard University (1838) profess literature. In the 1844-1848 published two books of poetry, has collaborated with several publications. This period, . in particular to 1848, . are clever, . full caustic observations Fable for Critics (Fable for the Critics), . romantic poem The Vision of Sir Launfalya (Vision of Sir Launfal), . political satire Notes Biglou (The Biglow Papers) and the second collection of poems (Poems),
The plot of the poem The Vision of Sir Launfalya, written mostly iambic tetrameter, is based on the narrative T. Malory, shifting the legends about the search for the Holy Grail, and partly demonstrates the impact of the Royal A. Tennyson's Idylls. The day before, when he intends to set off in search of cup SW. Grail, the hero is a dream a beggar, whom he contemptuously threw small coins. Then he sees a few years later: the search proved fruitless, and 'old man bent, pathetic and puny' returns home. Once again, the beggar in front of him, but now a hero to those who shared with a crust of bread: it is now clear that the Grail is not found them in distant lands - is the cup of mercy, and he shares with the poor, he feels a surge of life-giving forces.
In 1855, Lowell became abandoned HW Longfellow department of modern languages at Harvard University. Editor of literary journals 'Atlantic Monthly' (from 1857) and 'North American rivyu' (from 1863), he did much for the approval of realism in American literature. In his own poetry over the years weakened the reformist zeal of the early period of creativity and deeper spiritual, . and interest in national issues, . as evidenced by the second volume of Notes Biglou (1867), . Oda, . read at the annual act at Harvard (Ode Recited at Harvard Commemoration, . 1865) and Cathedral (The Cathedral, . 1869),
. In the first volume of Notes Biglou, . written on behalf of the farmer's dialect and equipped with heavy pseudo prefaces Pastor Wilbur, . proves to war with Mexico ( 'national crime, . and all for the sake of greed of slave-owners'), . and are subjected to attack army, . idea of special destiny of the United States, . romantics Senators, . venality of rulers policy, . machinations seeking the White House,
. The second volume, using the same techniques, the author speaks about the Civil War and related issues.
After 1856 Lowell increasingly moved away from poetry, focused on the creation of essays on literature, history and politics. His essays on Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Draydenu, Wordsworth and other writers are partly artistic in nature, combining literature and criticism.
As Ambassador to Spain (1877-1800) and England (1800-1883), as well as observing the internal political life of America in the period of Reconstruction, Lowell increasingly hard thinking about civil liability. As an intellectual, he adhered to the idea of a shared destiny of all mankind, in the same political goals has been a champion of enlightened democracy, defending the idea of the necessity of personal self-improvement. Died in Lowell Elmvude, his own estate in Cambridge, August 12, 1891.