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Lucretia Titus Lucretius Carus (Titus Lucretius Carus)

( Roman poet, author of didactic epic, The Nature)

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Biography Lucretia Titus Lucretius Carus (Titus Lucretius Carus)
(ca. 99 - OK. 55 BC)
Lucretius - Roman citizen, probably of noble origin, judging by the expressions, in which he devotes his work a prominent statesman Guy Memmi (praetor in 58 BC). All that we know about the life of Lucretia, is reduced to the post of St.. Jerome, who is likely quoting Suetonius, said: 'Opoenny a love potion, Lucretius his mind, in lucid intervals, he wrote several books, later published by Cicero, and had taken his own life'. The history of madness and suicide of Lucretia (inspiring the creation of Tennyson's poem Lucretius), and the role of Cicero in his literary fate became the subject of heated debate. In a letter to his brother Quintus, written in February of 54 BC, ie. shortly after the poet's death, Cicero mentions his poem, but only in order to establish its 'many flashes of genius, but also a considerable art'. Perhaps Lucretius led a solitary life, feeling disgusted, as evidenced by his poem, to destroying the Roman republic the universal pursuit of wealth and power and civil wars.
Poem On the Nature is the most lengthy of the extant expositions of the philosophy of Epicurus (c.. 340-270 BC). It consists of six books. In the first set of three fundamental principles ( 'Nothing comes from nothing', 'Nothing will never die'). Next Lucretius systematically expounds the doctrine of the universe, consisting of an infinite number of tiny indivisible particles (atoms) and the infinite empty space, through which the particles fall forever. Lucretius also argues, . that the atoms do not possess any qualities, . than a certain size and shape, . and all other experienceable object properties (color, . smell, . heat, etc.) arise as a result of exposure to the human senses of different combinations of atoms,
. All that is formed of atoms, including the earth and sky, the human mind and soul, prone to corruption, the immortality of the soul - an invention. In subsequent books have been applied to explain the various phenomena. Book IV is devoted to vision, hearing and other senses as well as the passion that gives the author an opportunity to break out indignant satire about the madness of love. In the V-book examines issues of cosmogony, the origin of plants, animals and humans, as well as society and civilization. In book VI, apparently unfinished, Lucretius appeals to such diverse phenomena as lightning, magnetism and volcanoes. The indispensable basic idea of the whole presentation - the fundamental principle of Epicurus, which states that the only source of knowledge is sense perception. Lucretius formulates this idea with full clarity (Book I 422-425, IV 469-521) and confirms the commitment to this principle of constant appeals to the testimony of the senses by introducing them into the narrative in the form of paintings from different regions.

Obviously, finding the teachings of Epicurus, Lucretius, as such an interesting and attractive, and believed that its truth can be proved. However, in the lyrical digressions, . as well as in the introductions and conclusions of the individual books Lucretius makes clear, . that he appreciates it is a physical theory yet as a reliable foundation of the moral teachings, . according to which only a well, . that seems 'good' feelings (ie,
. good for them). Lucretius, however, no attempt is made to resolve moral problems. As epicurean, Lucretius does not need such abstractions as Plato's 'good idea' or 'debt' Stoics. People therefore seems cruel, greedy, blasphemous unable to enjoy the pleasures of life, and he regrets their ignorance. Lucretius retained in acute sensitivity to human suffering, he has compassion, even a cow, which lost a calf (II 352-366). Lucretius believed that once people get rid of ignorance and fear generated by their senseless and fruitless desires, their innate goodness and ability to empathize (Wed. V 1019-1023) will be enough to dampen their inherent selfishness that makes them able to eat 'a life worthy of the gods' (III 322).

What little we know from earlier literature Epicureanism, does not allow to judge the degree of originality as a thinker Lucretius. He himself did not claim that title, saying his goal - to explain our fellow citizens 'mysterious discovery of the Greeks' (I 136). His decision to write in verse Lucretius justifies the hope that honey is sweeter Muses make drugs (I 945-947). This model could serve as Lucretia poem about the nature of the Sicilian Greek Empedocles (c.. 450 BC), of which he speaks with admiration (I 729-733). Some sections of the poem, including the grim finale, ascending to the description of the Athenian epidemic of 429 BC. Thucydides, can be clearly traced to its Greek prototypes. In other cases, references to such recent inventions as the water mill or theater curtain, suggest that there Lucretius based on personal experience. On the most memorable passages in the poem, such as an image 'primitive man' in the V book, one can say that they should print a genius. Some ideas can be considered as loans Lucretia.

Adoption of Lucretius, that he is a pioneer in the field of Latin poetry (I 926-930), it seems quite reasonable. In Ennia epic poet (239-169 BC, cf. I 117-119), he borrows some of the archaic turns of speech and the traditional phraseology of heroic poetry. Vocabulary and technique required and Lucretius partly Arata phenomena (in the translation of Cicero), may have been his and other samples, of which we know nothing. Some of the most frequently used terms Lucretia, such as primordia rerum (ultimate beginning of things) instead of 'atoms' of Epicurus or sensiferi motus (delivering the sensation of movement), and not included in the number of general use. Ancient commentators have recognized the influence of Lucretius on Virgil, . but the scheme adopted by Virgil hexameter eliminates many typical Lucretia line drawings, . and later the poets of antiquity, . while expressing admiration for Lucretia, . as did Ovid (43 BC-17 AD) and Statius (c.,
. 45-96 BC), the sample always chose Virgil. Some metric and phonetic effects of Lucretia, . eg string horrida contremuere sub altis aetheris oris (III 835), . its subtle alliteration and exact match metric and customary accent anticipate medieval phenomenon in the poetry,
. This similarity, however, associated with the recovery in the later poetry, folk tendencies, at the time soundproof classical tradition. Conscious imitation of this could not be, since the Middle Ages Lucretius not only to wield influence, but was simply not known.

Christian writers such as Lactantius (mind. app. 325), enjoy the twists Lucretia against pagan superstition. However, the positive teachings of Epicurus seemed to every mind, formed by the orthodox theology, not only blasphemous, but incomprehensible in its perversity. Lucretius as a poet was rediscovered Renaissance (first printed edition of his poems came out ok. 1473), when he found many admirers and imitators. But the reputation of a thinker was approved for Lucrezia only since the mid 17 century., . when Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) began a serious study of the Epicurean philosophy, . and works of Galileo, . Bacon and Descartes had prepared the mind of people to a new mode of perception 'nature',

. Meanwhile, a poem about nature, continued to read and love, without a doubt, she has influenced Goethe and Voltaire, its impact is obvious in all of modern European literature (perhaps especially in English - by E. Spencer to AE Hausman)
. However, the majority of readers who admired Lucretia as a poet, nor set at naught - as childish and pointless - its physics, and vehemently rejected his religious and moral teaching, and not one of hypocrisy. Even G.Dzh.Manro in the preface to his edition of the poem (1864), . Recognizing, . that 'for the truth of his philosophy of Lucretius stood at the head of the corner', . still observes: 'For us, . however, . truth or falsity of his system means very little, . It interests us only so far, . because there are ..,
. merely a tool for expressing the beauty and elegance of his language poetic ideas'. Only at the dawn of the 20 in. became possible to consider poetry, science and philosophy of Lucretius as a whole. In 1900 WH Mallock transcribed into English extracts from Lucretius (Lucretius on life and death). In 1918 a book by Woods on the nature of things was an attempt to show that the teachings of Lucretius is fully consistent with recent data of science. Despite the clearly peculiar Epicurean ethics of individualism, Lucretia welcomed even by the devout Marxists.

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