Nicolas Malebranche (Malebranche Nicolas de)( French philosopher.)
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Biography Nicolas Malebranche (Malebranche Nicolas de)
Born in Paris on August 6, 1638 in the family Secretary Louis XIII. In his youth he studied at the College de la Marche and the Sorbonne. Entered the Congregation 'Oratorio Christ' (Oratory) in 1664 became the priest. The softness of the statute of that society has allowed Malebranche devote much time to scientific pursuits, and he read a treatise about a man Descartes. The book so inspired him that the rest of his life he devoted to studies in mathematics, physics and philosophy. In the views of Malebranche combines the ideas of Descartes, Augustine and the Platonists. In particular, he agreed with Descartes that the feeling is not a representation, and offers a doctrine according to which knowledge presupposes the existence of other representative ideas, a kind of surrogates of external objects. This archetypes or ideas of objects that exist in the mind of God, so that 'we see all things in God'.
The best-known work of Malebranche on seeking the truth (De la recherche de la vrit, 1674-1675; the final version with corrections 1712). His most significant contribution to philosophy is the theory of vision and doctrine of causality - occasionalism. From the perspective of the last, . because of the absolute difference between matter and spirit, they have nothing to do with each other and any apparent interaction between them is only a parallel change, . provided by divine intervention in each case, . occasional,
. The inability of matter and spirit interact is a special case of the lack of interaction between objects, each of which may not be the cause, because the only reason in the world - God. What seems natural causes - not true, but occasional cause. As well-known mathematician, focusing, in particular, the infinitesimal calculus, Malebranche conducted an extensive correspondence with scientists from France and England. At the end of life to engage in vigorous debate with Dzh.Berkli and A. Arnaud. Malebranche died in Paris on October 13, 1715.
Authority Malebranche was very high in life and after death, but for 18 and 19 centuries. its influence has weakened. Currently, he is considered one of the most subtle metaphysicians, . D. Hume's predecessor in his criticism of the notion of causality, . Leibniz's theory of pre-established harmony, . Berkeley in the doctrine of ideas as the sole object of perception and contemporary psychological theories to the concept of the unconscious,
. Among other works Malebranche - Treatise on nature and grace (Trait de la nature et de la grce, . 1680), Conversations about metaphysics and religion (Entretiens sur la mtaphysique et sur la religion, . 1688), Reflections on Christian morality (Mditations chrtiennes morale, . 1683).,