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Mao Zedong

( Architect of the Chinese revolution and the founder of the People's Republic of China, the first figure of Marxism)

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Biography Mao Zedong
photo Mao Zedong
Focusing on the revolutionary potential of the peasantry and to gain power through armed guerrilla warfare in the countryside.
The eldest son in a family grown rich peasant, Mao was born December 26, 1893 the village of Shaoshan in Xiangtan County, Hunan Province, in south central China. Having traditional Chinese education in private school, helped his parents on the farm. Since early childhood, it became apparent pertinacious, . rebellious nature, . that most often led to conflicts with her father - a champion of strict discipline, . which, . According to Mao, . 'often beat me, . and brothers, . resolutely refused to pocket money and provided more than meager sustenance ',
. Mao's mother was' a good woman, shedroy and compassionate ', which is often - but never in the open - take the side of his eldest son, although' condemned any unrestrained expression of emotion or attempted mutiny ... She said that it is not in the spirit of the Chinese '.

However, the nature of the young Mao early prevailed candid iconoclast. At age 10 he ran away from school, not wanting to obey the stern requirements of teachers, who, like his father Mao, differed 'cruel, sharp temper and often beat the students'. At age 13, Mao left home.

Like many of the representatives of students, Mao Zedong painfully pathetic situation of China in the international community and the decline of the country's ruling dynasty. In 1908-1911, a turbulent time of agony of the Manchu dynasty, the internal rebellion of the young Mao started to become politicized. In the village where his family lived, the population was on the verge of starvation, but his father, Mao - who became prosperous by the time zernotorgovtsem - continued to export grain for sale in town. When one of the carts of grain was seized by desperate villagers, Mao took their side.

In the period from 1913 to 1918, Mao went to the Hunan Provincial High School in the city of Changsha. By the end of the school of his worldview was, in his own words, 'bizarre mixture of liberal, democratic reformism and utopian socialism. I was an ardent supporter of democracy, the 19 .. and besides, more and anti-militarist and anti-imperialist '. At the same time, at age 25, Mao knew absolutely nothing about the theories of Marx and Lenin.

Together with a group of his fellow-students, Mao traveled to Beijing - the ancient capital of imperial China. For the patronage of his former teacher, he took a job assistant librarian in the library of Beijing University, where he worked under the authority of Li Dazhao, chief librarian and prominent Chinese Marxists. In 1918, Mao joined Li Dazhao organized circle for the Study of Marxism. In 1919-1920, China was shaken by a wave of nationalist and anti-imperialist speeches, and the center of intellectual and political ferment was Beijing University. Caught up in this wave, which went down in history as 'May 4 Movement', many young intellectuals have been under the influence of Marxist socialism. The path chosen and professional revolutionary Mao Zedong.

Mao and the Chinese revolution. In 1921, Mao Zedong went to Shanghai to attend the organizational meeting of representatives of the Communist Party of China (CPC). He became one of the 12 delegates to the First Congress, which organized and conducted a mentor Mao Li Dazhao and other intellectual left from Peking University - Professor Chen Duxiu.

From 1921 to 1925, Mao implemented a number of organizational tasks of the CPC leadership. In 1922 he took part in organizing a strike of miners in his native Hunan. In 1923 and 1924, when the CCP for tactical reasons has entered into an alliance with the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), then headed by Sun Yat-sen, Mao also became a member of the CPC Central Committee and Central Executive Committee of the KMT.

In winter 1924-1925, Mao Zedong came to Hunan and the spring began to work actively to establish a peasant associations in the villages. By the end of 1925, Mao was forced to leave Hunan because of the persecution of the local ruler, warlord. He moved to Canton (Guangzhou), where the headquarters of the United Front of the KMT and the CCP. Here he was again elected a member of the CPC Central Committee and tasked to work in the newly created Institute for the Communist Party of the peasant movement.

In early 1926, Mao newly arrived in Hunan. Following the visit, he published generate debate 'inspection report', which encouraged the CPC to adopt a new revolutionary strategy. According to Mao, the first of its foundation was to be a reliance primarily on the peasantry, and then on the urban proletariat. In his report, Mao made a strong supporter of revolutionary violence and the slogan 'All Power to the peasant associations'.

This radical slogan immediately provoked a backlash in the orthodox-oriented work with the urban masses of the CPC leadership. The Central Committee refused to approve the report and issued a second censure by Mao - this time for the 'left deviationism'.

Heretical 'and peasants' strategy' Mao received unexpected support in 1927. In the spring of this year, Chiang Kai-shek, who led after Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang, launched a bloody anti-communist campaign, which culminated in the elimination of acting in the cities of the united front. A number of urban uprisings organized by the Communists in the second half of 1927, was easily suppressed by KMT. After that, the Communists virtually had no choice but to leave cities and move its main activities in the rural hinterland.

In the period from 1928 to 1934, Mao organized and led the Chinese Soviet Republic - 'state within a state' in rural areas of Jiangxi province in south central China. Holding out after several destructive actions, . conducted by Chiang Kai-Shek, . Mao gained valuable experience in mobilizing the peasantry (resorting to confiscation and redistribution of land, . belonged to the landlords and rich peasants), . guerrilla "people's war '(on the basis of mobile tactics' strikes and waste') and the organization of his Government,

When in October 1934 the CCP was finally forced to evacuate their bridgehead in Jiangxi, Mao led the Communist troops in the famous 'Long March'. After twelve months, breaking the nearly 10 thousand. km, the CCP moved its headquarters at Yan'an, in the mountainous province of Shaanxi in the north central China. In January 1935, during one of the stops during the 'Long March', Mao Zedong was elected chairman of the CPC Central Committee.

In 1937, with the beginning of Japanese aggression in North China, Mao and the CCP led them organized in the rear of the enemy's massive resistance movement. Under the slogan of fighting the Japanese, Mao organized and prepared a peasant army, launched a program of economic reforms and political education, has strengthened itself as a PDA, and its armed groups - the Red Army

. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the Communists and the Kuomintang resumed the civil war, in which Mao gained the unconditional victory over Chiang Kai-shek.
. Mao led China

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