Marita Jacques (Maritain Jacques)( French philosopher.)
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Biography Marita Jacques (Maritain Jacques)
Born in Paris on November 18, 1882. Received a Protestant upbringing, studied at the Sorbonne for two years (1907-1908) held at Heidelberg University, studying biology under the leadership of Hans Driesch. Was a disciple of Bergson, then under the influence and the example Bloy adopted Catholicism (1906). After this activity Maritain sent a desire to integrate into the modern idea of the philosophy of sv.Fomy Aquinas. He taught philosophy at the Parisian college St.Stanislas, in 1914-1939 - professor of modern philosophy at the Catholic Institute in Paris. Maritain was French ambassador to the Vatican (1945-1948). In 1948 he was invited to the post of professor at Princeton University, where he taught until 1960.
The first book Maritain, Philosophy bergsonianstva (La philosophie bergsonienne, 1914), is a criticism of the ideas of Bergson. In his lectures and numerous publications Maritain defended orthodox Catholic views and became the head of the movement of the French Neo-Scholasticism. In Thomism he saw a system to combine progress and tradition. He was deeply worried about the current political and moral issues, and he was inclined to deal with them philosophically, but in light of revelation and the main prerequisites of Christianity.
'New Humanism', who preached a philosopher, should serve as a renewal of civilization, to give what the world expects from Christianity. By Maritenu, the classical form of humanism is the negation of the deepest roots of tradition, rejection of the supernatural principle in man and the falling away of man from God. For 'anthropocentric humanism' human nature is self-sufficient. Instead, the new humanism must be theocentric. According to a new humanism, a man open to the world of the divine and supernatural, since it is both natural and supernatural being
. The writings on aesthetics, . example in art and scholasticism (L'Art et scolastique, . 1920), . Maritain developed Thomistic approach to art, . analyzed the work of writers and artists (especially the New Age) in terms of their inherent spirituality,
. In the period 1935-1945, he has written extensively on policy issues. In his view, democracy - secular manifestation of the spirit of the Gospels, and it has the same enemies as in Christianity. The main misconception of our time is the belief that man can be saved on its own and that the history of mankind is carried out without the intervention of Providence.
Maritain taught in the U.S. in the 1940's and 1950's, then returned to France and settled in Toulouse. In 1965, during a visit to Rome was accepted with honor by Pope Paul VI. In 1966 published a book Garonnsky farmer (Le Paysan de la Garonne), which criticized the Catholic neomodernizm. Among his other works - Differences, . to unite, . or levels of cognition (Distinguer pour unir, . ou Les degrs du savoir, . 1932); Seven Lectures on Being (Sept leons sur l'tre, . 1934); Borders Poetry and Other Essays (Frontires de la posie et autres essais, . 1935); Integral Humanism (Humanisme intgral, . 1936); brief treatise on the existence and the current (Court Trait de l'existence et de l'existent, . 1947); Nine lectures on the main concepts of moral philosophy (Neuf leons sur les notions premires de la philosophie morale, . 1951); Man and the State (Man and the State, . 1951), Philosophy in CitцL (La philosophie dans la п¦it, . 1960); Moral Philosophy (La Philosophie morale, . 1960),
. Maritain died in Toulouse, April 28, 1973.