MONO Jacques Lucien (Monod Jacques Lucien)( French biochemist and microbiologist, was awarded in 1965 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (jointly with Alexander Lvov and F. Jacob) for the study of protein synthesis.)
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Biography MONO Jacques Lucien (Monod Jacques Lucien)
Born February 9, 1910 in Paris. In 1934 he graduated from the University of Paris, where he worked until 1945 and then. In 1941 received his Ph.D.. From 1945 - Head of Laboratory of Physiology of Microorganisms, since 1953 - head of cell biochemistry of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, from 1971 - the director of the Institute. In 1959-1967 - Professor, University of Paris, in 1967-1972 - Professor at the Collц¬ge de France.
Major Monod works devoted to the study of bacterial growth, induction and repression of enzymes, the study of the mechanism of regulation of protein synthesis in bacteria. In 1950 he developed a method of continuous cultivation of bacteria, and gave it a theoretical justification. It consisted in submitting to the cultivator with a constant velocity medium and output the same rate of culture medium with bacteria. Monitoring the process was implemented in devices such as turbidostata (control the density of biomass) or chemostat (control concentration limitiruyuscheshl factor). The method of continuous cultivation is widely used in laboratory practice and in industry. In 1961 Monod, together with F. Jacob formulated a hypothesis on the participation of specific RNA, . called them 'information', . in the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein (translation from the language of the nucleotide sequence in the language of the sequence of amino acids),
. They predicted the properties of this RNA: a high molecular weight, comparable with that of DNA sites corresponding to one gene, the complementarity of this gene; rapid synthesis. Also in 1961, in a number of American and Japanese laboratories, the existence of such RNA has been proved experimentally. Now it is called the matrix (mRNA).
Enormous role in the understanding of cellular regulatory mechanisms played formulated Mono (with Jacob) theory of regulation of gene activity (1961). According to this theory, in addition to the DNA structure (information) genes have more genes-regulators with responsibility for turning on and off individual genes or blocks, depending on the metabolic needs of cells. Regulatory genes dictate synthesis of special molecules repressors, which bind to other genes of the regulatory system - the operators - and manage their work. Proof of the existence of two types of genes have been received Jacob and Monod in experiments on E.coli. They introduced a new concept of molecular genetics, defining a block of structural genes and the control of the operator as a single functional unit - the operon
. Directly from the theory of regulation of gene activity stemmed the concept of differentiation: to differentiate (competent) cells under the influence of different factors 'include' this or that group of genes that determine the further specialization of cells
Mono - the author of the widely known work of chance and necessity (Le Hasard et la Ncessit, 1970), in which he argued that all forms of life - the result of random mutations (random) and Darwinian selection (necessity). He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Germanskoy Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina', Royal Society of London.
Monod died in Cannes, May 31, 1976.