Napoleon III (Napoleon III)( Emperor of France)
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Biography Napoleon III (Napoleon III)
Born Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was born on April 20, 1808 in Paris. His father, Louis Bonaparte - King of Holland, the younger brother of Napoleon I. His mother - Hortense de Beauharnais, daughter from his first marriage of the Empress Josephine, first wife of Napoleon I.
Following the expulsion in 1815 Bonaparte of France, Louis Napoleon - as it is commonly called until 1852 - was educated mainly by private teachers in Italy, Switzerland and Germany, and took military training in the Swiss army. In 1831 took part in the defeated revolution in the Papal States. In 1832, after the death of the Duke Reyhshtadskogo, the son of Napoleon I, was the main challenger to the throne of France under the Bonapartes, and devoted himself to win the throne of.
October 31, 1836 in Strasbourg, he attempted military coup against King Louis Philippe, but was arrested and expelled from France. He continued to conduct propaganda from London, where he published the book Napoleonic ideas (Ides napoloniennes, 1840), in which he argued that Bonaparte has no desire for conquest and tyranny. 'Napoleonic idea, - he wrote - an idea not a military, and social, industrial, commercial and humanitarian', aimed at supporting the material welfare of the population. August 6, 1840 Louis Napoleon landed at Boulogne, repeating the attempt to seize power, but the troops, which he expected, refused to support. He was arrested, convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment in the fortress of Ham. Here, Napoleon III went on writing, promoting its policy. Of particular prominence was his book Overcoming pauperism (Extinction du pauprisme, 1844), which increased the number of his supporters in the nation, more and more imbued with the Napoleonic legend. In 1846 with the help of a brilliant disguise Louis Napoleon had escaped from prison and returned to England.
The February Revolution of 1848 in France finally gave him a long-awaited chance. In June 1848 four departments elected him to the Legislature, and in December a majority of votes he was elected president of the republic for a period of 4 years. He received 5 434 236 votes, while his rival - 1 498 107. Having played on the growing disillusionment with parliamentary government and the rising fear of the 'red' revolt, . he December 2, 1851 coup d'цLtat, . arrested about 20 000 of their opponents, . dissolve the Legislative Assembly and addressed the nation to provide him with virtually dictatorial powers,
. Plebiscite on Dec. 20, 1851 approved its president for 10 years. A year later, a new plebiscite proclaimed him Napoleon III, Emperor of France. (Son of Napoleon I, who never generally considered by Napoleon II.)
Marriage in 1853 the new emperor of Eugenia Montijo, a beautiful Spanish woman, has revived the glory of the French court - wasteful and extravagant appearance. Napoleon was the only son - Prince Louis-Napoleon, who was born in 1856, and in 1879 he died without leaving heirs.
Napoleon III imposed an authoritarian regime, captured all the key positions of power, imposed censorship, the Legislature has made a registering authority, had no right to propose or repeal of laws, waged against the opposition. For a while this mode is kept sufficiently well. The peasants, who provided Napoleon vast majority cared little Parisian politics, far more worried about their own financial interests. As mentioned, they wore their hearts on the left, and his pockets - right. Napoleon had provided them with subsidies and incentives, and they paid him devotion
. Emperor established banks, . supported the development of agriculture, . creating a model farm and carrying out land reclamation, . stimulated the construction of railways and means of communication, . encouraged the construction of the Suez Canal, . introduced a system of free trade for development and modernization of industry, . launched a large-scale public works - notably the restructuring of Paris by Baron Georges Ossmanna,
However, among the middle bourgeoisie and the working class was growing dissatisfaction with his despotism. Napoleon could not see, and to prevent the events that made concessions, issued a decree on Nov. 24, 1860 and January 19, 1867. January 2, 1870, Napoleon III gave much of their authority to the Ministry under the leadership of the liberal leader Emile Olivier. On May 8, 1870 plebiscite, this liberal regime received support 7 300 000 votes, voted against only 1 500 000.
In foreign policy, Napoleon III suffered permanent injury. He promised the world after coming to power, but soon became involved in the Crimean War with Russia (1854-1856). Victory in this war raised the prestige of the country. In 1859, in alliance with the Kingdom of Sardinia, Napoleon declared war on Austria for the liberation of Italy. In exchange for support of Sardinia France got Nice and Savoy. But an unexpected peace with Austria, angered Italians, the annexation displeased the British, the Italians also capture all the papal possessions (except Rome), he alienated Catholics in France.
In 1861-1866, Napoleon sent troops to Mexico and put on the throne of the Austrian Archduke Maximilian of Hapsburg. This costly venture turned a complete failure, and the captured Mexicans executed Maximilian in 1867. Sluggish protest against Napoleon's suppression of the uprising in Poland (1863-1864) biased against him both Russian and Polish. By the end of the reign of Napoleon in France no more reliable allies
. When public opinion in France is worried about the conquests of Prussia and the growth of its power, . Napoleon demanded territorial compensation at the borders of the Rhine (1867-1868), . then succumbed to the intrigues of Prussia in Spain and, . Finally, . played into the hands of Bismarck, . declaring war on Prussia July 19, 1870,
. Napoleon was finally undermined his reputation, personally leading the army, although the disease does not allow him even to sit in the saddle. 2 September 1870 he surrendered at Sedan, and two days later was toppled in the revolution in Paris.
After the peace agreement in 1871, Napoleon was released from captivity and returned with his son and wife in England. Napoleon died in Chizlherste January 9, 1873.
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