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John Henry Newman (Newman John Henry)

( English Cardinal, one of the great religious thinkers and writers 19.)

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Biography John Henry Newman (Newman John Henry)
Born February 21, 1801 in London at the banker's family. His mother came from a Huguenot family, instilled in him a love for the Bible. In 1808 he was sent to the school of Dr. Nicholas at Ealing, in the school were taught 250 boys. Newman brilliantly studied and in 15 years was considered the best student of the school. He still 'not formed religious beliefs', he was attracted by the independence and skepticism. From this frame of mind to heal one of the teachers, have. Myers, supplying him with the evangelical literature, thanks to these books at the end of 1816, he survived, he said, 'a great change in thought'. From their teachers Newman also inherited some elements of Calvinism, believing that he is predestined to salvation, but after a few years, he parted with the idea.
In 1817, Newman went to Trinity College, Oxford University, where he enjoyed fellowship. Although at the end of college, he received a bachelor's degree without distinction, he was able to distinguish when he submitted his candidature for the teacher Oriel College, and in April 1822 received a post.

His evangelical views have evolved under the influence of fellow teachers. Special care of him showed P. Ueytli, later became a Protestant Archbishop of Dublin. Newman's views have also changed and the experience of the pastoral vicar in Oxford, because in 1824, Newman became a priest of the Anglican Church. Learned a lot of Oriel College from supporters of the liberal trend in the church, he felt an increasing inclination to TN. High Church (High Church), drawing close to its representatives - John Keble and Richard Froude.

In 1828 Newman was appointed vicar of the University Church of St.. Mary in Oxford, and began to systematically study the works of the early church fathers, which culminated in his work Arianism of the fourth century (The Arians of the Fourth Century, 1833). Soon, his influence has spread beyond the limits of Oxford, when they were published eight volumes of the Parish and simple sermons (Parochial and Plain Sermons, 1834-1843).

In winter 1832-1833, together with R Newman. Froude and his father traveled to the Mediterranean countries. In Sicily, where he went alone, he is seriously ill and felt that he 'will be performing some work', but on the way home, composed a hymn Lead, blessed light (Lead, Kindly Light). Arriving in England, he managed to hear the sermon Keble of 'national apostasy', which marked the beginning of the Oxford Movement, a protest against the attempts of states to reform the Anglican church and monitor its activities. In September 1833, Newman began publication of the treatise for our time, 24 of which he wrote himself, these essays give the Oxford movement of the second name - traktarianskoe movement. During the next seven years he was the spiritual leader of the highly successful campaign: organizing meetings, writing, talking with people. They were joined E. Puzo and many other figures, the combined desire 'katolitsizirovat' Church of England, which soon led to an opposition movement by the Protestants who insisted that traktarianstvo leads straight to Rome. Newman found the allegations as absurd and in Lectures on the prophetic ministry (Lectures on the Prophetical Office, . 1837) developed the theory via media ( 'intermediate path'), . according to which the Anglican Church occupies an intermediate position between the vicious extremes of Protestantism and Catholicism,
. His Lectures on justification (Lectures on Justification, 1838) - a sample of the classical treatise on the grace.

Death of Froude (1836) was a heavy blow to Newman. In fund (Remains) Froude, published by Newman and Keble in 1838, he demonstrated his commitment to the Catholic ideal of holiness. In subsequent years, Newman found that many of his young followers of the logic of their beliefs drags in the direction of Rome. Then in 1841 he wrote a treatise 90, proving that the 39 articles of the Anglican faith does not contradict Catholic teaching practice. In 1842 he retired to Litlmor (near Oxford), where the September 25, 1843 delivered his last sermon as an Anglican called Farewell to friends (The Parting of Friends), and a week later resigned. In Litlmore he lived as a layman and led polumonasheskuyu life in a narrow circle of friends. In this paper, development of Christian doctrine (The Development of Christian Church), he claimed that the Catholic Church grew like a living organism, in accordance with a definite plan. October 9, 1845, Newman became a member of what he called 'a single Church of the Redeemer'.

A few months later, Newman left Litlmor, the autumn of 1846 arrived in Rome, where he enrolled student in the College of the Vatican's Congregation for the promotion of faith. He has long admired St.. Filippo Neri (1515-1595), founder of the Congregation of the oratorio, full of joy, feels the need of time, who could not bear hypocrisy, and now decided to organize the Congregation of the oratorio in England. In the Oratory, whose members have not brought the monastic vows, he could surround himself with friends and openly express their thoughts. May 30, 1847, Newman became a Catholic priest, and after a period of obedience to Rome, founded on Feb. 1, 1848 English speaker in Meriveyle (near Birmingham), which moved the next year. Several months later, he founded oratorianskuyu community in London, but Birmingham did not leave.

In Lectures on Anglican difficulties (Lectures on Anglican Difficulties, I, 1850), he urged those who have remained loyal to traktarianskomu movement to follow him to Rome, ie. adopt Catholicism. His brilliant, full of humor Lectures on modern position of Catholics (Lectures on the Present Position of Catholics, 1851) was a response to a hostile Protestant propaganda that unfolded after the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in England. The charges, thrown them in the lecture by Dr. Achille, an Italian monk who became a Protestant, and made false libel against the Catholics, led to a suit for libel. While Newman was sentenced to a fine, he won a moral victory, and received international support from Catholics. Meanwhile, Newman accepted an invitation to occupy the post of Rector for English Catholics (Catholic University of Ireland), Irish bishop based in Dublin,. In 1852 he gave a lecture on university education (The idea of the university, . The Idea of a University), . which, based on their experience staying at Oxford University, described the liberal secular education and its relation to the Christian ideal,
. Despite the lack of students and the difficulties created Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin, Newman managed to collect staff of teachers and 300 students, the university built a church, to establish a medical college. However, in 1858 he was forced to abandon their plans, firstly, because of the reluctance of Cullen's work, and secondly, due to the fact that the university was gradually transformed into a purely Irish school. Finally, it needed its oratorianskaya community in Birmingham, and care about her, he considered his main duty.

He expected further frustration. Cardinal Wiseman asked him to translate the Bible, but, after Newman gathered a group of assistants, the plan was abruptly canceled. Then, at the request of the bishops, he assumed the leadership of respected Catholic magazine 'The Wanderer' ( 'The Rambler') liberal perspective, to take him out of the plight of. And then it went to the Vatican for a denunciation of an article about advising the faithful on matters of dogma (On consulting the faithful in matters of doctrine), which emphasized the important role of the laity, who were always at the center of his attention. For the sake of the laity, he founded oratorianskuyu school, and this project was very successful.

Newman suddenly found himself once again a very influential figure, when in 1864 was attacked by H. Kingsley as a man who does not believe in 'truth for its own sake'. At Newman emerged reason for writing 'the history of his religious opinions', his life Apology (Apologia pro Vita Sua), which is published every two weeks in the summer of 1864. Newman was again able to hope that gained influence, and when his bishop (Allotorn) invited him to lead the Catholic parish in Oxford, he proposed to establish a community there oratorianskuyu. Despite the support Allotorna, . all plans Newman, . associated with the return to Oxford, . failed because of opposition ultramontane opponents 'mixed education', . which were headed by the future Cardinal Manning, . which is clearly not happy with the prospect of the presence of Newman in Oxford,
. Only after the death of Manning English Catholics were able to receive higher education and are free to enter the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

In 1865, Newman wrote a dramatic poem Geronti Dream (The Dream of Gerontius), and the next year - Message to Puzo (Letter to Pusey, Difficulties of Anglicans, II). Puzo, in his Irenikone the unity of churches, believed that the extreme views Ultramontanes - Father Faber, Y. Ward, Manning and others - to express the Catholic doctrine of the infallibility of the pope and the veneration of the Blessed Virgin. In his message, Newman stops only at the second theme, with a style that delighted his English counterparts in the Catholic faith. In 1875 he published a message to the Duke of Norfolk (Letter to the Duke of Norfolk, . Difficulties of Anglicans, . II), . in response to the accusation of Gladstone, . if the dogma of papal infallibility, . proclaimed at the Vatican (1870) undermined the loyalty of Catholics to the state,

Message from the Duke of Norfolk, which Newman has composed in 74 years of age, different strength and excellent literary style, inherent in all his works. In an essay in grammar assistance agreement (An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent, 1870), he certainly spoke about the foundation of faith and the rights of ordinary people to be confident in the truth of which he is unable to definitively confirm. In this essay, he raises issues that have already dealt with in sermons, Oxford University (Oxford University Sermons, 1843) and concerned the extent to which it is important to listen to the conscience for the comprehension of truth.

In 1878, Oxford Trinity College, which had once taught Newman, awarded him an honorary lecturer, and in 1879, at the request of the British Catholic laity, Pope Leo XIII made him a cardinal. According to the special privileges, he was allowed to remain in his Oratory in Birmingham, to guide the growing community. English Catholics, with a few exceptions, have long regarded him as their leader, and non-Catholics, he appealed to his moderation and fearless honesty. When he died (this happened on Aug. 11, 1890), in the newspapers all the directions he began to glorify a saint. 'London Times wrote:' Does it canonizes Rome or not, he will be canonized in the minds of thousands of believers, of whatever denomination they may be treated '.

It is impossible not to mention Newman's writings on the history and literature: Historical sketches (Historical Sketches, collected in 1872), loss and discovery (Loss and Gain, 1848) and Callista (Callista, 1855). In 1891, Anna Moseley issued Correspondence Dzh.G. Newman (Letters and Correspondence of JH. Newman), in 1917 Birmingham Oratorio published Correspondence of John Henry Newman with John Keble and the other for 1839-1845 (Correspondence of John Henry Newman with John Keble and Others, 1839-1845). Posthumously published works include thoughts and prayers (Meditations and Devotion s, 1893) and autobiographical writings (Autobiographical Writings, 1956).

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