PAUL Wolfgang (Pauli Wolfgang)( Swiss physicist.)
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Biography PAUL Wolfgang (Pauli Wolfgang)
Born in Vienna on April 25, 1900. He graduated from the University of Munich (1921). Pauli's first work was devoted to mathematical questions unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, and was published in 1918, . and the following year to the Pauli, . who was then 19 years old, . asked to write a long article on the theory of relativity to the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences (Enzyklopdie der mathematischen Wissenschaften),
. In 1921 Pauli defended his doctoral dissertation, University of Munich, led by A. Sommerfeld. In 1921-1922 was an assistant of Born on the chair of theoretical physics at the University of GцІttingen. I became acquainted with Niels Bohr and in 1922-1923 worked at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, assisted in the publication of the work of Bohr in German. In 1923 - Associate Professor of the University in Hamburg from 1928 - professor at the Higher Technical School in Zurich (except for 1935-1936 and 1940-1946, when he worked at the Institute for Basic Research at Princeton)
. When Pauli worked in Gottingen, . Bohr was engaged in searching for patterns of filling electron shells of atoms, . in particular, tried to explain, . why atom, . located in the ground state, . not all electrons are at the lower orbit,
. Taking part in solving this problem, . Pauli introduced the concept of spin and in 1925 formulated an important principle of modern theoretical physics, . according to which the two identical particles with half-integer spins can not be in a position, . ie,
. can not have the same values of all four quantum numbers (principal, orbital, magnetic and spin). For example, if two electrons the values of three quantum numbers match, the values of the fourth must be different. It follows that the same orbit can be no more than two electrons. For the discovery of the Pauli exclusion principle in 1945 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. The Pauli principle has given an explanation of the laws that govern the filling of electronic shells of atoms, and served as a starting point for explaining the fine and hyperfine structure of atomic spectra. In 1927, Pauli published an article explaining the nature of paramagnetism of metals, which concluded that the behavior of electrons in metals obeys the laws, based on the principle of prohibition, rather than classical statistical laws. Together with Heisenberg attempted formulation of quantum electrodynamics, by introducing a general scheme of quantization of fields and thus laying the foundations of a systematic theory of quantum fields. In 1931, the hypothesis of the existence of the neutrino (a neutral particle with zero rest mass and spin 1 / 2). Pauli - author of fundamental works on the theory of elementary particles, as well as the meson theory of nuclear forces.
Pauli was awarded medals H. Lorentz (1930), B. Franklin (1952), Max Planck (1958). Pauli died in Zurich on Dec. 15, 1958.