Edward Charles Pickering (Pickering Edward Charles)( The American astronomer and physicist.)
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Biography Edward Charles Pickering (Pickering Edward Charles)
Born July 19, 1846 in Boston (pc. Mass.). In 1865 he graduated from the Lawrence Scientific School, he taught mathematics. In 1867-1876 he was a professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Since 1876 - professor of astronomy at Harvard University and director of the Harvard Observatory.
Pickering works devoted astrophotometer and astroskopii. Academic improved the methods of visual photometry, meridian photometer constructed, which studied the star compared with the Pole Star with the help of a polarizing device. The first began widespread use of photography in astronomy and in 1884 published the first catalog, which includes 4260 stars from the north pole of the world to -30 б╟, and in 1913 - the union catalog, covering all the starry sky. In 1886-1889 participated in compiling the catalog of stellar spectra. The classification used in this catalog is used in the present (a so-called. Harvard classification). The continuation of this work was the establishment of the fundamental catalog of Henry Draper (Henry Draper Catalogue, 1918-1924), containing the spectra of nearly 400 thousand. stars.
Being engaged in the study of variable stars, Pickering suggested their classification by type, served as the basis of modern classification. Developed polarization method for determining the brightness of stars, now bearing his name. In 1891 he founded (with his brother, the astronomer William Pickering) South Station at the Harvard Observatory at Arequipa (Peru) and organized a systematic photography of the sky wide-angle cameras for search and observation of variable stars. Created the American Association of Variable Star Observers.
Pickering was a member of academies of sciences of many countries, awarded the Rumford medal, two gold medals of the London Royal Astronomical Society, the Bruce Medal, etc.. Pickering died in Cambridge (ea. Massachusetts) February 3, 1919.