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Robert Edwin Peary (Peary Robert Edwin)

( American naval officer and Arctic explorer.)

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Biography Robert Edwin Peary (Peary Robert Edwin)
photo Robert Edwin Peary (Peary Robert Edwin)
Born May 6, 1856 in Cresson (pc. Pennsylvania). Attended high school in Portland (pc. Maine), and graduated from college in Boudoyne in 1877, received an engineering degree. He worked as a draftsman in the Coast and Geodetic Service U.S.. In 1881 he was accepted into the Corps of Civil Engineers, the Navy U.S.. In 1884-1885 spent surveying work in Nicaragua.
In 1885, after reading the message on the Greenland ice sheet, Arctic Peary interested. After that, he organized and conducted eight Arctic expeditions. In 1886 went to three-month expedition to Greenland to explore the possibility of movement in its interior. Together with a friend studied ice caps to the east of Disko Bay. In 1891-1892, after two years of forced work in Nicaragua, Peary went north, crossed the sleigh north-eastern Greenland - from the Gulf of McCormick before Independence Fjord, and covered the distance of 2100 km, the earth opened and Melville Heylprina. He found that the eastern and western coast of Greenland converge and, thus, Greenland is an island.

In the years 1893-1895 Peary spent the third expedition in Greenland, and in summer 1896 and 1897 undertook a short trip to Cape York in Greenland to search for meteorites. In 1898 went to a four-year expedition, during which he tried to reach the North Pole, but in 1902 he managed to get only up to 84 б¦ 17? s.sh. During this expedition, he visited Fort Kondzher - a hut on o.Elsmir where 17 years earlier, the base of an unsuccessful expedition under the leadership of Greeley - and found it abandoned diaries and devices. Peary explored the areas adjacent to the Bay Lady-Franklin and Princess Mary, and the isolated ice cap on o.Elsmir. During the seventh expedition (1905-1906) arrived in a sleigh to 87 б¦ 06 's.sh. This point was among the dangerous ice-bound Arctic Ocean just 322 km from the North Pole.

During the eighth expedition (1908-1909) Peary was the first time on a full provision of the Navy United States is probably due to the efforts of his friend President Theodore Roosevelt. Peary claimed that during this expedition, April 6, 1909, he and his assistant, Matthew Genson, and four accompanying Eskimo reached the North Pole. Upon his return in 1909 Peary learned that the surgeon of his expedition 1891-1892 Frederick Cook claims that had reached the pole by almost a year before Peary, April 21, 1908. After heated debate claims were refuted by the Cook and Peary was declared the winner. However, doubts remained on the reliability of the opening of the pole by Piri. For example, Roald Amundsen had never believed that Peary reached the pole. However, only in 1980-1990's, when they were studied diaries, maps and photographs of the expedition Peary, his superiority was questioned. Studies undertaken in 1989, a navigation fund, led to the conclusion that Peary was not more than 8 km from its objective. This result was confirmed and the National Geographic Society. In 1996, Robert M. Bryce, who has spent 20 years studying this controversial issue, published a book, Cook and Peary: the polar end of the discussion (Bryce RM. Cook and Peary: The Polar Controversy, Resolved), in which he argued that neither Cook nor Peary reached the pole and does not last that remained to pass only 160 km to the desired goal.

Peary died in Washington on Feb. 20, 1920.

Peary - author of Secrets of Polar Travel (Secrets of Polar Travel, 1917) North Pole (The North Pole, 1910); near the poles (Nearest the Pole, 1907) and by a large ice to the north (Northward Over the 'Great Ice', 1898).

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Robert Edwin Peary (Peary Robert Edwin), photo, biography
Robert Edwin Peary (Peary Robert Edwin), photo, biography Robert Edwin Peary (Peary Robert Edwin)  American naval officer and Arctic explorer., photo, biography
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