Jean-Philippe Rameau (Rameau Jean-Philippe)( French composer and music theorist.)
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Biography Jean-Philippe Rameau (Rameau Jean-Philippe)
Born September 24, 1683 in Dijon. In 1702-1706 and 1716-1723 served as organist at Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral, and in 1706-1716 worked in Paris and Lyon. From 1723 and until his last days Rameau lived in Paris, served as organist at the Jesuit college and the church of Sainte-Croix-de-la-Bretonri (before 1740). For many years, received support from a wealthy lover of music - the tax collector A.de la Puplinera. Rameau died in Paris on September 12, 1764
. Heritage Rameau composed of several dozen books and several articles on music theory and acoustics, four volumes clavier pieces (one of them - Concert piece, . Pices en concert, . - For clavier and flute and viola da gamba), several motets and solo cantatas, 29 stage works - operas, . operas, ballets and pastorals,
Rameau explained to him the use of modern chord with the help of a coherent system, starting from the physical nature of sound, and in this respect went on the famous acoustics J. Sauveur. True, the theory of Rameau, presenting the essence of consonance, leaves unexplained the dissonance, which is not formed from elements of the overtone series, as well as the possibility of reducing all tempered sounds one octave.
Today, more significant than theoretical researches Rameau, and his music. The composer worked at the same time as JS Bach, GF Handel, D. Scarlatti and survived them all, but Rameau's work is different from the music of his great contemporaries. Nowadays, the most famous are his clavier pieces, but the main field of activity was the composer's opera. He had the opportunity to work in theatrical genres already aged 50 years and over 12 years has created its chief masterpieces - the lyric tragedy of Hippolytus and Aris (Hippolyte et Aricie, . 1733), . Castor and Pollux (Castor et Pollux, . 1737) and Dardanus (Dardanus; two versions - 1739 and 1744), opera-ballets Gallant India (Les Indes galantes, . 1735) and Festivals Hebe (Les Ftes d'Hb, . 1739), a lyrical comedy Plataea (Plate, . 1745),
. Rameau operas composed before the age of 80, and each of them has fragments, confirming his fame as a great musical dramatist.
Type in Rameau's opera - French, not Italian: musical development is not interrupted, the transition from complete vocal numbers to intone smoothed. In the operas of Rameau's vocal virtuosity does not occupy the chief place in them a lot of orchestral interludes, and in general all the orchestral part being paid great attention to, are essential to the choir and extended ballet scene. In short, compared with a later model from the classical operatic Rameau less vocal and about the same orchestra and chorus. Melodic Rameau always be behind the text, conveying its meaning more accurately than an Italian aria, although he was a superb melodist, vocal line in his operas, in principle, closer to recitative than to cantilena. The main means of expression is not a melody, as rich and expressive use of harmony - this is the identity of the operatic style Rameau. The composer used in his scores of contemporary possibilities of the orchestra of the Paris 'Opera': string, . woodwinds, . horns and drums, . with particular attention he paid to woodwinds, . timbres that create identity of orchestral color to the operas of Rameau,
. Choral writing varies depending on the stage situations, the gallery is always dramatic and often are dancing character. For his endless dance and ballet scenes are typically a combination of plastic beauty with emotional expressiveness, namely dance pieces by Rameau operas immediately captivate listeners. World of imagery of this composer is very rich, and any of the emotional states, data in the libretto, is reflected in music. Thus, the passionate yearning sealed, for example, in the piano plays timid (La timide) and talk music (L'Entretien des Muses), and in many pastoral scenes from his operas, ballets and operas.
Most of his compositions are written in the old, now non-existing forms, but it does not affect the appreciation of his heritage. Rameau can be placed next to Purcell, and as for his contemporaries, he is second only to Bach and Handel.