Gioachino Rossini (Rossini Gioacchino)( Italian opera composer, author of the immortal Barber of Seville.)
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Biography Gioachino Rossini (Rossini Gioacchino)
Born February 29, 1792 in Pesaro family in urban trumpeter (crier) and singers. Very early love for music, especially the singing, but only began to engage seriously in 14 years, enrolling in the Music Lyceum in Bologna. There he studied the cello and playing counterpoint until 1810, when the first noteworthy essay Rossini - one-act opera-page bill for marriage (La cambiale di matrimonio, 1810) - was set in Venice. It was followed by a number of operas of the same type, of which two - Touchstone (La pietra del paragone, 1812) and Silk ladder (La scala di seta, 1812) - are still popular.
Finally in 1813, Rossini composed two operas, which immortalized his name: Tancredi (Tancredi) by Tasso and then two-act opera buffa L'Italiana in Algeri (L'italiana in Algeri), triumphantly adopted in Venice and then across the North of Italy.
The young composer tried to compose several operas for Milan and Venice, but none of them (even to retain its charm of the opera The Turk in Italy, Il Turco in Italia, 1814) - a sort of 'couple' from the opera L'Italiana in Algeri) with no success. In 1815, Rossini re lucky, this time in Naples, where he signed a contract with the theater impresario 'San Carlo'. It is an opera Elizabeth, . Queen of England (Elisabetta, . regina d'Inghilterra), . virtuoso composing, . written specifically for Isabella Kolbran, . Spanish diva (soprano), . enjoyed the location of the Neapolitan court and mistress impresario (several years after Isabella became the wife of Rossini),
. Then the composer went to Rome, where he was going to write and deliver several operas. The second of these was the opera The Barber of Seville (Il Barbiere di Siviglia), first set by February 20, 1816. The failure of the opera at the premiere was just as loud as her triumph in the future
. Returning, . in accordance with the terms of the contract, . Naples, . Rossini put there in December 1816 opera, . which, . perhaps, . was most appreciated by his contemporaries, . - Othello by Shakespeare: it is really beautiful pieces, . but the product of flawed libretto, . distorted Shakespeare,
. The next opera Rossini composed again to Rome: his Cinderella (La cenerentola, 1817) subsequently favorably received by the public; premier did not give any reasons for assumptions about the future success. But Rossini experienced failure is much quieter. Also in 1817 he traveled to Milan for the staging of the Thieving Magpie (La gazza ladra) - exquisitely orchestrated melodrama, now almost forgotten, except for the magnificent overture. Upon his return to Naples Rossini put there at the end of the opera Armida (Armida), . which was warmly received and is still valued much higher, . than Thieving Magpie: Armida on resurrection in our day there is still a delicacy, . if not - sensuality, . which emits this music,
Over the next four years, Rossini managed to compose a dozen operas, mostly not very interesting. However, prior to termination of contract with Naples, he gave the city two outstanding works. In 1818 he wrote the opera Moses in Egypt (Mos in Egitto), who soon conquered Europe, in fact, is a sort of oratorio, there are remarkable majestic choruses and celebrated 'Prayer'. In 1819, Rossini presented the Virgin Lake (La donna del lago), which had a somewhat more modest success, but contained a charming romantic music. When eventually the composer moved from Naples (1820), he took with him Isabella Kolbran and married her, but in the future of their family life was spent not too happy.
In 1822, Rossini's, accompanied by his wife first left Italy: he entered into a contract with his old friend, the theater impresario 'San Carlo', which is now the director of the Vienna Opera. Composer brought to Vienna, his latest work - an opera Zelmira (Zelmira), which has won the author an unprecedented success. True, some musicians, led by K.M.fon Weber was sharply criticized by Rossini, but others, among them Franz Schubert, gave a favorable assessment. As for society, it is unconditionally accepted side Rossini. The most notable event of Rossini's visit to Vienna was his meeting with Beethoven, which he later recalled in a conversation with Robert Wagner.
In the autumn of the same year the composer himself called to Verona Prince Metternich: Rossini's cantata was to honor the conclusion of the Holy Alliance. In February 1823 he composed a new opera for Venice - Semiramis (Semiramida), of which now remains in the concert repertoire only overture. Be that as it may, Semiramis can be recognized in the period, the culmination of Italian creativity Rossini, though, because it was the last opera composed by him for Italy. Moreover, Semiramis with such brilliance was in other countries, that after her reputation as the largest Rossini opera composer era has not been subjected to any doubt. Wonder Stendhal compared Rossini triumph in the field of music with the victory of Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
At the end of 1823 turned out Rossini in London (where he stayed for six months), and before that spent a month in Paris. Composer hospitably met King George VI, with whom he sang duets; Rossini was snapped up in a secular society as a singer and accompanist. The most important event of that time was an invitation to Paris as the artistic director of the Opera 'Theater of Italy'. The value of this contract, firstly, that he determined the place of residence of the composer before the end of his days, and secondly, that he confirmed the absolute superiority as an opera composer Rossini. It must be remembered that Paris was then the center of the musical universe, an invitation to Paris was for the musician's highest honor, which one could imagine.
Rossini began his new duties on Dec. 1, 1824. Apparently, he was able to improve the management of the Italian opera, especially in parts of the performances. With great success have been the submission of two previously written operas that Rossini radically reworked for Paris, and most importantly, he composed a charming comic opera The Count Ory (Le comte Ory). (She had, . As expected, . huge success in resuming in 1959.) The next piece of Rossini, . appeared in August 1829, . became the opera William Tell (Guillaume Tell), . essay, . which is usually considered a major achievement of the composer,
. Acknowledged by critics and performers absolute masterpiece, . This opera nonetheless never aroused such enthusiasm among the public, . as The Barber of Seville, . Semiramis, or even Moses: Tell the ordinary students thought opera too long and cold,
. However, it is undeniable that the second act contains beautiful music, and luckily, the opera has not completely disappeared from the modern world repertoire and listeners of our days is able to make their own judgments about it. We note only that all created in France Rossini libretto written in French.
After William Tell Rossini did not write any more operas, and in the next four decades, created only two significant songs in other genres. Needless to say, that such termination of a composer in the very zenith of excellence and glory - a unique phenomenon in the history of world music culture. Suggested that a wide variety of explanations for this phenomenon, but, of course, no one knows the full truth. Some said, . that care Rossini had arisen from his rejection of the new Paris opera idol - Dzh.Meyerbera others pointed to the offense, . Rossini's actions which caused the French government, . tried after the revolution in 1830 to terminate the contract with the composer,
. Mention was made and the deterioration being a musician, and even his supposedly incredible laziness. May have played a role all these factors, except the last. Note that, by leaving Paris after William Tell, Rossini had a firm intention to take over a new opera (Faust). We also know that he went and won a six-year lawsuit against the French government over its pension. With regard to health, then survived the shock at the death of his beloved mother in 1827, Rossini really felt unwell, not very strong at first, but later progressed with frightening rapidity. All the rest - this is more or less plausible conjectures.
During the next decade to Tell Rossini, while leaving behind an apartment in Paris, he lived mostly in Bologna, where he hoped to find peace, necessary after the nervous tension of previous years. However, in 1831 he went to Madrid, where he appeared now widely known Stabat Mater (in the first edition), and in 1836 - to Frankfurt, where he met Mendelssohn and because he discovered the works of Bach. Yet it Bologna (not including regular trips to Paris in connection with litigation) remained resident composer. Can assume that in Paris he appealed not only to court cases. In 1832, Rossini met with Olympia Pellisier. Rossini's relationship with his wife long ago left much to be desired, in the end the couple decided to leave, and Rossini married Olympia, kotorayaya become a good wife for the patient Rossini. Finally, in 1855, after a scandal in Bologna and frustration from Florence, Olympia persuaded her husband to hire a crew (he did not recognize the train) and go to Paris. Very slowly, his physical and mental condition began to improve, to share it back if not happy, then wit the music, which was a taboo subject for many years, and again began to come to mind. April 15, 1857 - Olympia birthday party - has become a kind of turning point: on this day devoted to Rossini's wife, cycle of romances, who composed a secret from all. This was followed by a series of small pieces - Rossini called them the sins of my old age, the quality of this music does not need any comments for the fans of the Magic convenience store (La boutique fantasque) - Ballet, for whom the play served as the basis. Finally, in 1863 appeared recently - and really great - a work by Rossini: Little solemn mass (Petite messe solennelle). This mass - not a very solemn and not small, but perfect for music and imbued with a deep sincerity that attracted the attention of musicians to compose.
Rossini died November 13, 1868 and was buried in Paris at Pere Lachaise cemetery. After 19 years at the request of the Italian Government's coffin composer moved to Florence and buried in the church of Santa Croce, near the ashes of Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli and other great Italians.