Smollett Tobias George (Smollett Tobias George)( Scottish writer, famous for its dynamic cunning novels)
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Biography Smollett Tobias George (Smollett Tobias George)
Born in Dalkhorne (county Dunbartonshire), was baptized March 19, 1721. Studied in Smollett Dambartonskoy classical school, then spent several years at the University of Glasgow. In May 1736 determined the pupil to famous surgeons Glasgow U. Sterling and D. Gordon. During these years, Smollett wrote several satirical poems (not preserved) and the initial outline of the tragedy Regicide (The Regicide), did not see the scene, but was published in 1749.
Eighteen years Smollett went to London, where he passed the exam for admission to the naval service, and in March 1740 became assistant surgeon on the ship 'Chichester'. The ship participated in the unsuccessful expedition of Admiral Vernon E. to Cartagena (now in Colombia) during the Anglo-Spanish War, 1739-1948. During the sea service Smollett gathered the material, . which later proved useful to him for the image of seafarers in the novels and - less successfully - in the now-forgotten comedy Riposte, . or mariners of old England (The Reprisal, . or The Tars of Old England), . set by D. Garrick in 1757,
Serving on the shore, either during the second voyage to the West Indies, Smollett met his future wife Anne Lasselz, heir to a modest status in Jamaica, where, apparently, they were married about 1743. Since Smollett did not have sufficient funds, he probably returned to London, one in search of work. It is known that in 1744 he practiced as a surgeon in Downing Street. Approximately four years later a young couple happily settled in London, was born about 1747 their only daughter Elizabeth. Smollett devoted much time medical practice (in 1750 he received his doctorate in medicine in Aberdeen Mershel College) and began to engage in literary activities.
From the works of Smollett first saw the light of new song (A New Song, OK. 1744), later it was redesigned for adventure Roderick Random Then came the poem Tears of Scotland (The Tears of Scotland, ca. 1746), reprinted many times in the 18 century.; Satire Council (Advice, 1746) and its sequel Censure (Reproof, 1747). Translation of Gil Blas A. R.Lesazha-out in 1749. However, the first truly successful product was Rodrik Rand (The Adventures of Roderick Random, 1748), by his own opredennyh, 'a satire on the human race'. The model he served Dzh.Svift and A. Pop, he imitated the latter in youthful satires Council and Censure. In the spirit of the time to Smollett were education and social reform, the very same story was of a comic character. In Roderick Random tells about the adventures of the young Scot, is a chain of episodes, presented a lively and bright. The action takes place in different countries, especially good credible naval scenes and a trio of sailors - Morgan, bowling and Rettlina.
In 1750, Smollett moved to Chelsea, where for thirteen years, led an active life, enjoying the almost rural environment. The second novel, Smollett, Perigrin Pickl (The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle), was released in early 1751. In the same year he published the first, until an anonymous book reviews on the pages of Monthly rivyu '(' Monthly Review '), a new magazine, founded in 1749 R. Griffiths. The third novel, The Adventures of Count Ferdinand Fetoma (The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom), released in 1753, and at the same time Smollett after fifteen years of absence to visit friends and relatives in Scotland. In 1755, left translation of Don Quixote, which replaced the earlier translation (presumably C. Jarvis).
Simultaneously Smollett, together with other writers ideas and prepared to publish a monthly 'Kritikl rivyu' ( 'Critical Review'); first issue was published in March 1756. By December of that year, he appeared to be presented in this journal over sixty reviews. Smollett worked tirelessly and other undertakings. His History of England (Complete History of England), published in 1757 and amended in 1758, for a time sold more than 10 000 copies per week. Sales of this best-seller and continues the story of England (Continuation of the Complete History of England) have brought the author of more than 2000 pounds of net revenue, which in those days was a considerable amount.
In 1760 Smollett was found guilty of publishing the pages of 'Kritikl Review' (1758) slanderous remarks against Admiral Charles Knowles, was sentenced to heavy fine and eleven months imprisonment. In prison he wrote most of the Adventures of Sir Lancelot Greaves (The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves). This novel came out with the continuation of the journal 'British Magazine' ( 'British Magazine'), the official editor was himself Smollett.
By 1763 his health was undermined by the incredible amount of literary work. Then he got the most terrible blow: the age of fifteen years she could be his only daughter. Then Smollett, traveling slowly and with pauses, moved to Nice, where he lived from 1763 to 1765. There, the writer has created a remarkable work Itineraries travelogue through France and Italy (Travels through France and Italy, 1766). He made a farewell trip to Scotland and then was forced to seek warmth and sun in Italy, near Livorno, where he was finished Humphrey Clinker ((The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, 1771). Smollett died Sept. 20, 1771.