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Benedict Spinoza (Spinoza Benedictus)

( The great Dutch philosopher, one of the largest rationalists 17.)

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Biography Benedict Spinoza (Spinoza Benedictus)
photo Benedict Spinoza (Spinoza Benedictus)
(1632-1677), or Baruch d'Espinoza
Born in Amsterdam on November 24, 1632. Spinoza's parents were Jewish immigrants who moved from Portugal, and he was brought up in the spirit of Orthodox Judaism. However, in 1656, . after conflict with municipal authorities, . Spinoza was subjected to 'the great excommunication' of the Jewish community for heretical views (which mainly relate to Christianity - the community feared the deterioration of relations with the authorities), . and in 1660 was forced to leave Amsterdam and moved to several years in the village Reynsburg near Leiden, . where he continued to maintain links with the circle kollegiantov - religious brotherhood, . later united with the Mennonites,
. From Reynsburga he moved to Voorburg - a village near The Hague, and from 1670 until his death on Feb. 21, 1677 lived in the Hague. Spinoza earned his living making and polishing lenses for spectacles, microscopes and telescopes, as well as private lessons in the latter years of his income is supplemented with a modest pension, which is payable in two notable patrons. With this he led an independent life and could afford to study of philosophy and correspondence with the leading scientists of the time. In 1673 he was offered a professorship at the department of philosophy at Heidelberg University, but Spinoza refused the proposal, citing a hostile attitude on the part of the official church. Its main products are the Theological-political treatise (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), . published anonymously in Amsterdam in 1670, . and Ethics (Ethica), . Launched in 1663 and finished in 1675, . but published only in 1677 in the Latin language in the book of posthumous works (Opera Posthuma), along with unfinished treatise on scientific method (Treatise on the improvement of the mind, . Tractatus de Emendatiae Intellectus), . of political theory (Tractatus Politicus), . grammar language ancient Hebrews (Compendium Grammatices Linguae Hebraeae) and letters,
. Only book, . published during the life of Spinoza and under his name, . labor was the beginning of philosophy of Rene Descartes, . Parts I and II, . proved geometrically (Renati des Cartes Principiorum Philosophiae Pars I et II, . More Geometrico Demonstratae, . per Benedictum de Spinoza, . 1663),
Years of Spinoza's life coincided with the beginning of the New Age. In his work he carried out the synthesis of the scientific ideas of the Renaissance with the Greek, Stoic, neo-Platonic and scholastic philosophy. One of the difficulties faced by researchers trying to understand the ideas of his most famous work - Ethics, lies in the fact that Spinoza often uses scholastic terminology in an entirely different, not adopted in the sense of scholasticism. Therefore, to understand the true meaning of this work, you must take into account significant new scientific and ontological assumptions on which the philosopher.

The main area of interest is Spinoza's philosophical anthropology, the study of man in his relation to society and the entire master universe. The originality of his ideas was to try to extend 'Copernican revolution' in the sphere of metaphysics, psychology, ethics and politics. In other words, . Spinoza saw nature in general and human nature in particular, objectively and impartially - so, . as if it were a geometric problem, . and tried to exclude the possibility of humanly understandable desire of wishful, . example, . assume the existence of the purpose or final causes in nature,
. 'Geometric method', which sets out Ethics, - nothing but an attempt to avoid accusations of partiality to certain views. Following Giordano Bruno, Spinoza considered the space not as an end but as an infinite system and adhered to the heliocentric and not geocentric hypothesis, adopted in scholasticism. Nature, according to Spinoza, is the cause of itself (causa sui). Spinoza considered part of the natural human order, and not some special creation, is not subordinate to the universal laws of nature. God - is the dynamic principle, inherent nature as a whole (natura naturans, generating nature), not some transcendent creator of the natural order. As a dynamic principle of Spinoza's God, . essentially, . an impersonal God - Science of God, . which serves the object of 'intellectual love' (amor Dei intellectualis), . but, . in contrast to the biblical God, . does not reciprocate on human love and not particularly concerned about the welfare of his wards individuals,

Starting from Cartesian dualism, Spinoza proposed the theory of parallelism of the body and mind, according to which consciousness, like the body, is also subject to certain laws. In contrast to Descartes, Spinoza saw 'The length' and 'thinking' as the attributes of a single substance. He felt the consciousness of a certain 'spiritual automaton', with its own necessary laws, just as the body obeys the laws of motion. Besides, . Hobbes, Spinoza, along with one of the first applied the law of inertia of Galilee to the psychology and ethics, . suggested, . that the nature of things, every form of life tends to remain in its existence and preserve it indefinitely, . yet faced with an obstacle in the form of a superior force,
. Introduction to Spinoza's concept of the primacy of desire (conatus) for self-preservation - later developed by Darwin to the evolutionary-biological point of view - meant a complete break with the theory of scholastic, . who considered, . that all natural forms are directed to a pre-defined goals, . or final causes, . and that human nature exists for the sake of some transcendent, . supernatural goal,

In Ethics, Spinoza is trying to build a psychology of emotion as a dynamic force, obeying the laws, which can be inferred from the three primary affects or emotions, namely, pleasure (joy) and dissatisfaction (print) and the desire. Spinoza's idea that the emotional life is subject to certain logic and emotions - not just irrational forces or illness that should be somehow suppressed or eliminated, had been accepted only after the emergence of psychoanalysis.

In the Ethics of Spinoza's originality manifested in the re-evaluation of traditional moral values - a fact subsequently recognized F. Nietzsche - and the interpretation of virtue as a state of freedom. The moral theory of Spinoza's naturalistic and appealing to this world, it is against religious transcendentalism, which asserts that earthly life is only priugotovlenie to life after death. Not sadness and sense of sin or guilt, but joy and peace of mind are the principal motives of Spinoza's philosophy of life. In all his psychological and ethical theory a central role is played by the idea that we need to know human nature to learn how to manage it (the idea that Francis Bacon had expressed with regard to the whole of nature in general).

In the teachings of Spinoza's ethics and religion are interrelated. His philosophy of life is a classic for the New Age attempt to construct a rational, universal system, costing without supernatural sanctions, and any reference to the biblical revelation. This approach has made the views of Spinoza's particularly appealing to men of science, such as Einstein, poets - Goethe and Wordsworth, who sought communion with nature, and many open-minded people, not taking dogmatism and intolerance of official theology. The views of Spinoza had a great influence on the development of philosophical thought of modern times, in particular, the German classical philosophy.

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