Wilhelm Steinitz (Steinitz Wilhelm)( Austrian chess world champion, one of the first theoreticians of chess.)
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Biography Wilhelm Steinitz (Steinitz Wilhelm)
Born in Prague on May 18, 1836 into a poor Jewish family, where he was the thirteenth and last child. Since at least twelve years of age knew how to play chess. In 1858 enrolled at the Vienna Polytechnic Institute, the Mathematics Department, but soon dropped out and devoted himself to chess. In 1958-1861 was a regular visitor to the chess room in Vienna's Cafe 'Partridge', played for money, took first place in the Vienna tournament chess in 1861.
In 1862 he settled in London, while one of the centers of chess creativity, participated in several tournaments, led the life of a professional chess player.
Played with the best chess players of his time - Anderson, Blackburn, Byrd, Vinaver, Zukertort etc.. Studying Party VP Morphy, has developed his own concept of the game of chess, known as positional style (rapid development of the figures, the seizure of the center, the creation and capture of open lines).
In a systematic form of his ideas were set out only E. Lasker in 1925. In Textbook of chess great chess player claimed that it was Steinitz created the theory of control as such. By winning the Vienna tournament 1873, and in 1876 beating Blackburn in London, Steinitz was considered at the end of 1870's strongest chess player the world. In 1982, Steinitz won it again at the Vienna tournament, tied for first place with Vinaver, and then - at the London tournament 1883
. He worked in the sports newspaper 'Field' ( 'The Field'), . but in 1882 lost his job chess browser and in 1883 moved with his family in the U.S., . where he continued his career as a professional chess player - simul, . game 'blindly', . games with strong opponents in small towns,
. In 1885 he became editor of 'International Chess Magazine' ( 'International chess magazine'), coming out until 1891.
In 1886 won the match for the world title from 10 parties over the IG Zukertort in 1889 - over MI Chigorin in a match of 20 games in 1892 - again on the Chigorin in rematch. In 1894 in a match with E. Lasker in the U.S. Steinitz defeated, giving way to world title. In 1895, Steinitz was invited to the tournament in St. Petersburg, where he was to meet with Chigorin and Lasker. At the tournament came in second place, which gave him the right to claim the match with world champion. In the match held in Moscow in 1896-1897 with the Lasker Steinitz lost again.
A few days after the end of the match with Steinitz had a nervous attack, and he was placed in a psychiatric clinic. Doctors did not believe that he Steinitz, in addition depleted the game master from time to time fell into a delusional state. After all it turned out, and passed more than a month, he still managed to leave Russia in Vienna, and then in New York.
The decisive role played by the argument chess player that he as a Jew should not violate the law of the Pale of Settlement, and should as soon as possible to leave Moscow. Despite his illness, Steinitz participated in tournaments in Vienna, Cologne, London, but returned to New York in 1899, again fell into a severe nervous disorder - it seemed to him that it comes from an electric current, which moves the pieces on the board. Steinitz died in a shelter for mentally ill in o.Uordz (New York, USA) August 12, 1900.
Steinitz - the author has not completed the modern textbook game of chess (The modern chess instructor) (light only saw that first conceived of a multivolume work). Disciples considered themselves Steinitz Z. Tarrasch, E. Lasker and many other chess TN. 'new school'.